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affect will cannabidiol? drugs other What

merdok
29.09.2018

Content:

  • affect will cannabidiol? drugs other What
  • Cannabidiol
  • Identification
  • However, certain substances have the ability to affect with the liver or other pre- existing conditions, drugs may not. Learn more about Cannabidiol uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Cannabidiol. This causes one substance to impact the amount of another substance in the body. These drug interactions can be dangerous, especially when you are.

    affect will cannabidiol? drugs other What

    Alfentanil The metabolism of Alfentanil can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Alfuzosin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Alfuzosin. Alimemazine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Alimemazine. Aliskiren Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.

    Allobarbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Allobarbital. Allopregnanolone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Allopregnanolone.

    Allylestrenol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Allylestrenol. Alminoprofen The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Alminoprofen. Almotriptan The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Almotriptan is combined with Cannabidiol. Alogliptin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Alogliptin. Alosetron The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Alosetron.

    Alphacetylmethadol The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Cannabidiol. Alphaprodine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Alphaprodine. Alprazolam The metabolism of Alprazolam can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Alprenolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Alprenolol.

    Alvocidib Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Alvocidib which could result in a higher serum level. Amantadine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Amantadine is combined with Cannabidiol. Ambrisentan The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Ambrisentan.

    Ambroxol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Ambroxol. Amibegron The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Amibegron is combined with Cannabidiol. Amineptine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Amineptine is combined with Cannabidiol. Aminoglutethimide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Aminoglutethimide.

    Aminophenazone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Aminophenazone. Aminophylline The metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Amiodarone The metabolism of Amiodarone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Amisulpride The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Amisulpride. Amitraz The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Amitraz.

    Amitriptyline The metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Amitriptylinoxide The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Amitriptylinoxide. Amlodipine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Amlodipine. Amobarbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Amobarbital.

    Amodiaquine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Amodiaquine. Amoxapine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Cannabidiol. Amphetamine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Amprenavir The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Amprenavir. Anagrelide The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Anagrelide is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Anakinra The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Anakinra. Anastrozole The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Anastrozole. Androstenedione The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Androstenedione.

    Aniracetam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Aniracetam. Anisodamine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Anisodamine. Anisotropine methylbromide The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Anisotropine methylbromide is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Antipyrine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Antipyrine. Antrafenine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Antrafenine is combined with Cannabidiol. Apalutamide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Apalutamide.

    Apixaban Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Apixaban which could result in a higher serum level. Apomorphine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Apremilast The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Apremilast. Aprepitant The metabolism of Aprepitant can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Aprobarbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Aprobarbital. Apronalide The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Apronalide. Aranidipine The metabolism of Aranidipine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Arbaclofen Placarbil The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Arbaclofen Placarbil. Arbutamine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Arbutamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Arformoterol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Arformoterol. Aripiprazole The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Aripiprazole lauroxil The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Aripiprazole lauroxil. Armodafinil The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil. Arsenic trioxide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Arsenic trioxide. Artemether The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Artemether. Artesunate The metabolism of Artesunate can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Asenapine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Cannabidiol. Astemizole The metabolism of Astemizole can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Asunaprevir The metabolism of Asunaprevir can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Atazanavir The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir. Atenolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol. Atipamezole The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Atipamezole.

    Atomoxetine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with Cannabidiol. Atorvastatin The metabolism of Atorvastatin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Atovaquone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Atovaquone.

    Atracurium The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Atracurium. Atracurium besylate The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Atracurium besylate.

    Atropine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cannabidiol. Avanafil The metabolism of Avanafil can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Avasimibe The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Avasimibe. Avatrombopag The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Avatrombopag. Axitinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Axitinib.

    Azaperone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Azaperone. Azapropazone The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Azapropazone is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Azatadine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Azatadine. Azelastine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Azelastine. Azelnidipine The metabolism of Azelnidipine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Azithromycin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin. Baclofen The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Baclofen. Balaglitazone The metabolism of Balaglitazone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Balsalazide The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Bambuterol The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Bambuterol is combined with Cannabidiol. Banoxantrone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Banoxantrone. Barbexaclone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Barbexaclone. Barbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Barbital.

    Baricitinib The metabolism of Baricitinib can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Barnidipine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Barnidipine.

    Beclamide The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Beclamide. Beclomethasone dipropionate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Beclomethasone dipropionate.

    Bedaquiline The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bedaquiline. Befunolol The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Befunolol is combined with Cannabidiol. Belinostat The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Belinostat.

    Benactyzine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Benactyzine is combined with Cannabidiol. Benazepril Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Benazepril. Benazeprilat Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Benazeprilat. Bencyclane The metabolism of Bencyclane can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Bendazac The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bendazac.

    Bendroflumethiazide Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide. Benidipine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Benidipine. Benmoxin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Benmoxin. Benorilate The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Benorilate. Benoxaprofen The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Benoxaprofen is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Benperidol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Benperidol. Bentazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bentazepam.

    Benzatropine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Cannabidiol. Benzbromarone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Benzbromarone. Benzilone The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Benzilone is combined with Cannabidiol. Benzoctamine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Benzoctamine.

    Benzodiazepine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Benzodiazepine. Benzphetamine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Benzquinamide The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Benzquinamide is combined with Cannabidiol. Benzydamine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Benzydamine.

    Benzyl alcohol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Benzyl alcohol. Bepridil The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bepridil. Betamethasone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Betamethasone.

    Betaxolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol. Bethanidine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Bethanidine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Betulinic Acid The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Betulinic Acid. Bevantolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bevantolol.

    Bevonium The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Bevonium is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Bexarotene The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Bexarotene. Bezafibrate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bezafibrate.

    Bezitramide The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Bezitramide is combined with Cannabidiol. Bicalutamide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bicalutamide. Bictegravir The metabolism of Bictegravir can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Bietaserpine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bietaserpine. Bifemelane The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bifemelane.

    Bifeprunox The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bifeprunox. Bifonazole The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bifonazole. Biperiden The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Biperiden is combined with Cannabidiol. Bisoprolol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bisoprolol.

    Bitolterol The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Bitolterol is combined with Cannabidiol. BL The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with BL Blonanserin The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Blonanserin. Boceprevir The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir. Bornaprine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Bornaprine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Bortezomib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib. Bosentan The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Bosentan. Bosutinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bosutinib. Botulinum toxin type A The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Botulinum toxin type A.

    BQ Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of BQ Brentuximab vedotin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Brentuximab vedotin. Bretylium Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bretylium. Brexpiprazole The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Brexpiprazole. Brigatinib Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Brigatinib which could result in a higher serum level.

    Brivaracetam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Brivaracetam. Brofaromine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Brofaromine.

    Bromazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bromazepam. Bromisoval The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bromisoval.

    Bromocriptine The metabolism of Bromocriptine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Bromperidol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bromperidol.

    Brompheniramine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Brotizolam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Brotizolam. Bryostatin 1 The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bryostatin 1. Bucindolol The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bucindolol.

    Buclizine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Buclizine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Budesonide The metabolism of Budesonide can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Buflomedil The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Buflomedil. Bufotenine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bufotenine.

    Bumadizone The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Bumadizone. Bupivacaine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.

    Bupranolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bupranolol. Buprenorphine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Buprenorphine. Bupropion The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Bupropion is combined with Cannabidiol. Buspirone The metabolism of Buspirone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Busulfan The metabolism of Busulfan can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Butabarbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Butabarbital. Butalbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Butalbital. Butaperazine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Butaperazine.

    Butethal The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Butethal. Butorphanol The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Cannabidiol. Butriptyline The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Butriptyline is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Butylscopolamine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Butylscopolamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Cabazitaxel The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cabazitaxel. Cabergoline Cabergoline may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cannabidiol. Cabozantinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cabozantinib.

    Cadralazine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cadralazine. Caffeine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.

    Calcitriol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Calcitriol. Camazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Camazepam. Camptothecin Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Camptothecin which could result in a higher serum level. Camylofin The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Camylofin is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Canagliflozin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Canagliflozin. Canakinumab The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Canakinumab. Candesartan The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Candesartan.

    Candesartan cilexetil The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Candesartan cilexetil. Candicidin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Candicidin. Candoxatril Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Candoxatril. Cannabidivarin The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cannabidivarin. Capecitabine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.

    Capsaicin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Capsaicin. Captopril Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Captopril. Carbamazepine The metabolism of Carbamazepine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Carbaspirin calcium The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.

    Carbinoxamine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Carbinoxamine. Carbomycin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Carbomycin.

    Carboxyamidotriazole The metabolism of Carboxyamidotriazole can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Carbromal The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Carbromal. Carbutamide The metabolism of Carbutamide can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Carfentanil The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Cariprazine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cariprazine is combined with Cannabidiol. Carisbamate The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Carisbamate. Carisoprodol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Carisoprodol. Caroverine The metabolism of Caroverine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Caroxazone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Caroxazone. Carprofen The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Carprofen is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Carvedilol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Carvedilol. Caspofungin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Caspofungin.

    Cathinone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cathinone. Cefradine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Cefradine. Celecoxib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib. Celiprolol The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Celiprolol.

    Cephalexin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cephalexin. Ceritinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Ceritinib. Cerivastatin Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Cerivastatin which could result in a higher serum level. Certolizumab pegol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Certolizumab pegol.

    Cethromycin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cethromycin. Cetirizine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cetirizine. Cevimeline The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cevimeline. Chenodeoxycholic acid The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Chenodeoxycholic acid.

    Chloral hydrate The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Chloral hydrate. Chloramphenicol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol. Chlordiazepoxide The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Chlordiazepoxide. Chlorhexadol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Chlorhexadol.

    Chlormadinone The metabolism of Chlormadinone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Chlormezanone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Chlormezanone. Chloroquine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine. Chlorothiazide Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Chlorothiazide.

    Chlorphenamine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Chlorphenoxamine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Chlorphenoxamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Chlorphentermine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Cannabidiol. Chlorproethazine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Chlorproethazine.

    Chlorpromazine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Cannabidiol. Chlorpropamide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Chlorpropamide.

    Chlorprothixene The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Cannabidiol. Chlorthalidone Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Chlorthalidone. Chlorzoxazone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Chlorzoxazone.

    Cholecalciferol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol. Choline magnesium trisalicylate The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Choline magnesium trisalicylate is combined with Cannabidiol. Ciclesonide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Ciclesonide. Cicletanine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cicletanine.

    Ciclosporin The metabolism of Ciclosporin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Ciglitazone The metabolism of Ciglitazone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Cilazapril Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cilazapril.

    Cilnidipine The metabolism of Cilnidipine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Cilostazol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cilostazol. Cimetidine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.

    Cimicifuga racemosa The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cimicifuga racemosa. Cimicoxib The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cimicoxib is combined with Cannabidiol. Cinacalcet The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.

    Cinazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cinazepam. Cinitapride The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cinitapride is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Cinnarizine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cinnarizine. Cinolazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cinolazepam. Ciprofloxacin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Ciprofloxacin.

    Cirazoline The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cirazoline. Cisapride The metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Cisatracurium The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cisatracurium.

    Cisplatin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cisplatin. Citalopram The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Citalopram.

    Cladribine Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Cladribine which could result in a higher serum level. Clarithromycin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin. Clemastine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clemastine. Clenbuterol The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clenbuterol.

    Clevidipine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Clevidipine. Clidinium The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Cannabidiol. Clinafloxacin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Clinafloxacin.

    Clindamycin The metabolism of Clindamycin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Clobazam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clobazam. Clobetasol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Clobetasol. Clofarabine Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Clofarabine which could result in a higher serum level.

    Clofazimine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Clofazimine. Clofibrate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Clofibrate. Clomethiazole The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clomethiazole. Clomipramine The metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Clonazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clonazepam. Clonidine The metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Clonixin The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clonixin.

    Clopenthixol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clopenthixol. Clopidogrel The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.

    Cloranolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cloranolol. Clorazepic acid The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clorazepic acid. Clorgiline The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Clorgiline.

    Clorindione The metabolism of Clorindione can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Clothiapine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clothiapine. Clotiazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Clotiazepam. Clotrimazole The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.

    Cloxazolam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cloxazolam. Clozapine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Cannabidiol. Cobicistat The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat. Cobimetinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cobimetinib. Cocaine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Codeine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Codeine is combined with Cannabidiol. Colchicine The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Coltuximab ravtansine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Coltuximab ravtansine.

    Conivaptan The metabolism of Conivaptan can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Conjugated estrogens Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Conjugated estrogens which could result in a higher serum level. Copanlisib Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Copanlisib which could result in a higher serum level. Corticosterone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Corticosterone.

    Corticotropin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Corticotropin. Cortisone acetate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Cortisone acetate. Coumarin The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Coumarin.

    Crizotinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib. Cryptenamine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cryptenamine. Curcumin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Curcumin. Cyamemazine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cyamemazine.

    Cyclandelate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cyclandelate. Cyclizine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cyclizine. Cyclobarbital The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cyclobarbital. Cyclobenzaprine The metabolism of Cyclobenzaprine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Cyclopenthiazide Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide. Cyclophosphamide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Cyclophosphamide.

    Cyclopropane The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Cyclopropane. Cyclothiazide Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cyclothiazide. Cycrimine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Cycrimine is combined with Cannabidiol. Cyproheptadine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Cyproterone acetate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cyproterone acetate. Cytarabine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Cytarabine. Dabrafenib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Dabrafenib. Daclatasvir The metabolism of Daclatasvir can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dacomitinib Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Dacomitinib which could result in a higher serum level. Dactinomycin Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Dactinomycin which could result in a higher serum level.

    Dalfopristin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dalfopristin. Danazol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Danazol. Danoprevir The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Danoprevir. Dantrolene The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dantrolene.

    Dapagliflozin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dapagliflozin. Dapiprazole The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dapiprazole. Dapoxetine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dapoxetine. Dapsone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Dapsone.

    Darifenacin The metabolism of Darifenacin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Darodipine The metabolism of Darodipine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Darunavir The metabolism of Darunavir can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dasabuvir The metabolism of Dasabuvir can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dasatinib The metabolism of Dasatinib can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Daunorubicin Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a higher serum level. Deanol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Deanol.

    Debrisoquin Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Debrisoquin. Decamethonium The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Decamethonium. Deferasirox The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Deferasirox. Deflazacort The metabolism of Deflazacort can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Delafloxacin Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Delafloxacin which could result in a higher serum level. Delamanid The metabolism of Delamanid can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Delapril Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Delapril. Delavirdine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.

    Delorazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Delorazepam. Demegestone The metabolism of Demegestone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Deoxyepinephrine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Deoxyepinephrine. Deserpidine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Deserpidine. Desflurane The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Desflurane.

    Desipramine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Desipramine is combined with Cannabidiol. Desloratadine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Desloratadine. Desmopressin The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Desmopressin is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Desogestrel The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Desogestrel. Desoxycorticosterone acetate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Desoxycorticosterone acetate. Desoxycorticosterone pivalate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Desoxycorticosterone pivalate. Desvenlafaxine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Desvenlafaxine.

    Detomidine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Detomidine. Deutetrabenazine The metabolism of Deutetrabenazine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dexamethasone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Dexamethasone. Dexamethasone isonicotinate The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Dexamethasone isonicotinate. Dexbrompheniramine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.

    Dexchlorpheniramine maleate The metabolism of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dexetimide The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Dexetimide is combined with Cannabidiol. Dexfenfluramine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dexfenfluramine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dexibuprofen The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dexibuprofen. Dexketoprofen The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dexketoprofen. Dexlansoprazole The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dexlansoprazole. Dexmedetomidine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dexmedetomidine.

    Dexmethylphenidate The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dexmethylphenidate is combined with Cannabidiol. Dexniguldipine The metabolism of Dexniguldipine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dexpropranolol Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dexpropranolol. Dextofisopam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dextofisopam. Dextroamphetamine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dextroamphetamine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dextromethorphan The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dextromethorphan is combined with Cannabidiol. Dextromoramide The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dextropropoxyphene The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Cannabidiol. Dexverapamil The metabolism of Dexverapamil can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dezocine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Diacerein The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Diacerein. Diamorphine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Diamorphine. Diazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Diazepam.

    Diazoxide Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Diazoxide. Dibenzepin The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dibenzepin. Dichloralphenazone The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dichloralphenazone.

    Diclofenac The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Diclofenac. Dicloxacillin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Dicloxacillin. Dicoumarol The metabolism of Dicoumarol can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dicyclomine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Dicyclomine is combined with Cannabidiol. Dienogest The metabolism of Dienogest can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Diethyl ether The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Diethyl ether.

    Diethylnorspermine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Diethylnorspermine. Diethylpropion The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Diethylpropion is combined with Cannabidiol. Diethylstilbestrol The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Diethylstilbestrol. Difemerine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Difemerine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Difenoxin The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Difenoxin. Difenpiramide The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Difenpiramide. Diflunisal The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diflunisal is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Digitoxin The metabolism of Digitoxin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Digoxin The metabolism of Digoxin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dihexyverine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Dihexyverine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dihydralazine Cannabidiol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dihydralazine. Dihydro-alpha-ergocryptine The metabolism of Dihydro-alpha-ergocryptine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dihydrocodeine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Cannabidiol. Dihydroergocornine Dihydroergocornine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cannabidiol. Dihydroergocristine Dihydroergocristine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cannabidiol. Dihydroergocryptine Dihydroergocryptine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cannabidiol. Dihydroergotamine The metabolism of Dihydroergotamine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dihydroetorphine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dihydromorphine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Diltiazem The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem. Dimenhydrinate The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dimenhydrinate. Dimetacrine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dimetacrine is combined with Cannabidiol. Dimethyl sulfoxide The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyltryptamine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dimethyltryptamine is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dimetindene The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Dimetindene is combined with Cannabidiol. Diphemanil The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Diphemanil is combined with Cannabidiol. Diphemanil methylsulfate The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Diphemanil methylsulfate is combined with Cannabidiol. Diphenadione The metabolism of Diphenadione can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Diphenhydramine The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Cannabidiol. Diphenidol The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Diphenidol is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Diphenoxylate The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Cannabidiol. Dirithromycin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dirithromycin.

    Disopyramide The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Disopyramide is combined with Cannabidiol. Disulfiram The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram. Dixyrazine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dixyrazine.

    Dobutamine The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dobutamine. Docetaxel Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Docetaxel which could result in a higher serum level. Doconexent The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Doconexent. Dofetilide The metabolism of Dofetilide can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dolasetron The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Dolasetron is combined with Cannabidiol.

    Dolutegravir Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Dolutegravir which could result in a higher serum level. Domoic Acid The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Domoic Acid. Domperidone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Domperidone. Donepezil The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Donepezil. Dopamine The risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dopamine.

    Dopexamine The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dopexamine. Doramectin The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Doramectin. Doravirine The metabolism of Doravirine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Dosulepin The risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dosulepin. Dotarizine The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dotarizine.

    Dovitinib The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dovitinib. Doxacurium The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Doxacurium. Doxapram The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Doxapram is combined with Cannabidiol. Doxazosin The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Doxazosin. Doxefazepam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Doxefazepam.

    Doxepin The metabolism of Doxepin can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol. Doxofylline The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Doxofylline. Doxorubicin Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a higher serum level. Doxycycline The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.

    Doxylamine The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Doxylamine is combined with Cannabidiol. Dronedarone The metabolism of Dronedarone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Droperidol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Droperidol. Drospirenone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be increased when combined with Drospirenone. Drotebanol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Drotebanol. Droxicam The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Droxicam.

    Droxidopa Cannabidiol may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa. Duloxetine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Duloxetine.

    Dutasteride The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dutasteride. Duvelisib Cannabidiol may decrease the excretion rate of Duvelisib which could result in a higher serum level. Dyclonine The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Dyclonine. Dydrogesterone The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Dydrogesterone. Ebastine The metabolism of Ebastine can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.

    Ebselen The risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Ebselen. Ecopipam The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Ecopipam. Efavirenz The metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz. This extensive tool tests, for example, 78 adverse effects divided into 23 categories corresponding to organ systems or body parts. No respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications were recorded during any test session.

    The results of the evaluation of pharmacokinetics, to see if interaction between the drugs occurred, were as follows. No effect was evident for urinary CBD and metabolite excretion except at the higher fentanyl dose, in which CBD clearance was reduced. Importantly, fentanyl coadministration did not produce respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications during the test sessions and CBD did not potentiate fentanyl's effects.

    No correlation was found between CBD dose and plasma cortisol levels. CBD did not worsen the adverse effects e. Coadministration was safe and well tolerated, paving the way to use CBD as a potential treatment for opioid addiction.

    A Dutch study compared subjective adverse effects of three different strains of medicinal cannabis, distributed via pharmacies, using VAS. The 12 adjectives used for this study were as follows: This strain showed significantly lower levels of anxiety and dejection.

    Moreover, appetite increased less in the high CBD strain. The review by Bergamaschi et al. This holds especially true for the extrapyramidal motor side effects elicited by classical antipsychotic medication. Order of drug administration was pseudorandomized across subjects, so that an equal number of subjects received any of the drugs during the first, second, or third session in a double-blind, repeated-measures, within-subject design.

    This effect was caused by opposite neural activation of relevant brain areas. In addition, no effects on peripheral cardiovascular measures such as heart rate and blood pressure were measured. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy nonanxious subjects using a within-subject design. The doses were selected to only evoke neurocognitive effects without causing severe toxic, physical, or psychiatric reactions.

    The physiological parameters, heart rate and blood pressure, were also monitored and no significant difference between the placebo and the CBD group was observed. A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Hepatic enzymes were also measured daily, but no effect was reported. Naturalistic studies with smokers inhaling cannabis with varying amounts of CBD showed that the CBD levels were not altering psychomimetic symptoms.

    CBD might work to alleviate disorders of addiction, by altering the attentive salience of drug cues. The study did not further measure side effects. CBD can also reduce heroin-seeking behaviors e. This was shown in the preclinical data mentioned earlier and was also replicated in a small double-blind pilot study with individuals addicted to opioids, who have been abstinent for 7 days. One hour after the video session, subjective craving was already reduced after a single CBD administration.

    The effect persisted for 7 days after the last CBD treatment. Interestingly, anxiety measures were also reduced after treatment, whereas no adverse effects were described.

    A pilot study with 24 subjects was conducted in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design to evaluate the impact of the ad hoc use of CBD in smokers, who wished to stop smoking. Pre- and post-testing for mood and craving of the participants was executed.

    Craving was assessed using the Tiffany Craving Questionnaire On day 1 and 7, exhaled CO was measured to test smoking status. Sedation, depression, and anxiety were evaluated with the MRS. At day 7, the anxiety levels for placebo and CBD group did not differ. CBD did not increase depression in contrast to the selective CB1 antagonist rimonabant.

    CBD might weaken the attentional bias to smoking cues or could have disrupted reconsolidation, thereby destabilizing drug-related memories. To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects. Moreover, the only acute study that also measured CBD effect on appetite was the study we described above, comparing different cannabis strains.

    Growth hormone and prolactin levels were unchanged. Compared to the healthy individuals, the cortisol levels increased less after TSST in the 32 at-risk individuals.

    The CBD group showed less reduced cortisol levels but differences were not significant. Truly chronic studies with CBD are still scarce. Nonetheless, we also included these studies with repeated CBD treatment, because we think that compared to a one-time dose of CBD, repeated CBD regimens add value and knowledge to the field and therefore should be mentioned here.

    These results are supported by another study described in the review by Grotenhermen et al. CBD was administered on average with three other drugs, including clobazam The coadministration led to an alteration of blood levels of several antiepileptic drugs.

    In the case of clobazam this led to sedation, and its levels were subsequently lowered in the course of the study. A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al. Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review.

    They hopefully will shed light on the inconsistencies observerd in animal studies. Chronic studies in humans may, for instance, help to test whether, for example, an anxiolytic effect always prevails after chronic CBD treatment or whether this was an artifact of using different animal models of anxiety or depression.

    In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. This led to a reduction of their psychotic symptoms. Moreover, no serious side effects or cognitive and motor symptoms were reported. No adverse effects were observed and her symptoms improved. The same positive outcome was registered in another study described by Bergamaschi et al. The respective treatment was maintained for three additional weeks.

    This was the case for three patients in the CBD group and five patients in the amisulpride group. CBD treatment was accompanied by a substantial increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement, suggesting inhibition of anandamide deactivation via reduced FAAH activity.

    In addition, the FAAH substrates palmitoylethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide both lipid mediators were also elevated in the CBD group. CBD showed less serum prolactin increase predictor of galactorrhoea and sexual dysfunction , fewer extrapyramidal symptoms measured with the Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale, and less weight gain.

    Moreover, electrocardiograms as well as routine blood parameters were other parameters whose effects were measured but not reported in the study.

    CBD better safety profile might improve acute compliance and long-term treatment adherence. A press release by GW Pharmaceuticals of September 15th, , described 88 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenic psychosis, treated either with CBD in addition to their regular medication or placebo. Important clinical parameters improved in the CBD group and the number of mild side effects was comparable to the placebo group.

    Moreover, neurological and physiological examinations were performed, which neither showed signs of CBD toxicity nor severe side effects. The study also illustrated that CBD was well tolerated. CBD in addition to their regular epilepsy medication. Another clinical study lasting at least 3 months with children and young adults with various forms of epilepsy, who were treated with the CBD drug Epidiolex, was presented at the American Academy for Neurology in In a few cases, severe side effects occurred, but it is not clear, if these were caused by Epidiolex.

    The largest CBD study conducted thus far was an open-label study with Epidiolex in patients mainly children, the average age of the participants was 11 suffering from severe epilepsy, who could not be treated sufficiently with standard medication. Ten percent of the patients reported side effects tiredness, diarrhea, and exhaustion. After extensive literature study of the available trials performed until September , CBD side effects were generally mild and infrequent. The only exception seems to be a multicenter open-label study with a total of patients aged 1—30 years, with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

    This led to a reduction in seizure frequency. It is therefore difficult to put the side effect frequency into perspective.

    Attributing the side effects to CBD is also not straightforward in severely sick patients. Thus, it is not possible to draw reliable conclusions on the causation of the observed side effects in this study. This rating instrument comprised the following factors: This assessment instrument analyzes adverse medication effects, including psychic, neurologic, autonomic, and other manifestations. Using various safety outcome variables, clinical tests, and the cannabis side effect inventory, it was shown that there were no differences between the placebo group and the CBD group in the observed side effects.

    The occurrence of various degrees of GVHD was compared with historical data from patients, who had only received the standard treatment. This resulted in lower resistin levels compared to baseline. The hormone resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Compared to baseline, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide levels were elevated after CBD treatment. This incretin hormone is produced in the proximal duodenum by K cells and has insulinotropic and pancreatic b cell preserving effects.

    CBD was well tolerated in the patients. However, with the comparatively low CBD concentrations used in this phasetrial, no overall improvement of glycemic control was observed. When weight and appetite were measured as part of a measurement battery for side effects, results were inconclusive. For instance, the study mentioned above, where 23 children with Dravet syndrome were treated, increases as well as decreases in appetite and weight were observed as side effects. However, in the safety analysis group, consisting of subjects, 10 showed decreased weight and 12 had gained weight.

    Both these factors were not controlled for in the reviewed studies. This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al. First, more studies researching CBD side effects after real chronic administration need to be conducted. Many so-called chronic administration studies, cited here were only a couple of weeks long.

    Second, many trials were conducted with a small number of individuals only. To perform a throrough general safety evaluation, more individuals have to be recruited into future clinical trials. Third, several aspects of a toxicological evaluation of a compound such as genotoxicity studies and research evaluating CBD effect on hormones are still scarce. Especially, chronic studies on CBD effect on, for example, genotoxicity and the immune system are still missing.

    Last, studies that evaluate whether CBD-drug interactions occur in clinical trials have to be performed. In conclusion, CBD safety profile is already established in a plethora of ways.

    However, some knowledge gaps detailed above should be closed by additional clinical trials to have a completely well-tested pharmaceutical compound. The study was commissioned by the European Industrial Hemp Association. EIHA paid nova-Institute for the review. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

    Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Jun 1. Find articles by Kerstin Iffland. Find articles by Franjo Grotenhermen. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Relevant Preclinical Studies Before we discuss relevant animal research on CBD possible effects on various parameters, several important differences between route of administration and pharmacokinetics between human and animal studies have to be mentioned.

    Open in a separate window. The reality is more complex, because CBD is lipophilic and, for example, will consequently accumulate in fat tissue. These calculations were made with the intention to give the reader an impression and an approximation of the supraphysiological levels used in in vitro studies. CBD-drug interactions Cytochrome Pcomplex enzymes This paragraph describes CBD interaction with general drug -metabolizing enzymes, such as those belonging to the cytochrome P family.

    Neurological and neurospychiatric effects Anxiety and depression Some studies indicate that under certain circumstances, CBD acute anxiolytic effects in rats were reversed after repeated day administration of CBD. Psychosis and bipolar disorder Various studies on CBD and psychosis have been conducted. Addiction CBD, which is nonhedonic, can reduce heroin-seeking behavior after, for example, cue-induced reinstatement. Neuroprotection and neurogenesis There are various mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, for example, energy metabolism whose alteration has been implied in several psychiatric disorders and proper mitochondrial functioning.

    Immune system Numerous studies show the CBD immunomodulatory role in various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes. Cell migration Embryogenesis CBD was shown to be able to influence migratory behavior in cancer, which is also an important aspect of embryogenesis.

    Cancer Various studies have been performed to study CBD anticancer effects. Food intake and glycemic effects Animal studies summarized by Bergamaschi et al. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity Jones et al. Acute Clinical Data Bergamaschi et al. Physiological effects In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, CBD was coadministered with intravenous fentanyl to a total of 17 subjects. Psychosis The review by Bergamaschi et al.

    Addiction A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Endocrine effects and glycemic including appetite effects To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects. Physiological effects A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al.

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric effects Anxiety Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review.

    Psychosis and bipolar disorder In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. Conclusion This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al.

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    ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice. Cannabidiol enhances xenobiotic permeability through the human placental barrier by direct inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein: Am J Obstet Gynecol. Influence of single and repeated cannabidiol administration on emotional behavior and markers of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in non-stressed mice. Cannabidiol, among other cannabinoid drugs, modulates prepulse inhibition of startle in the SHR animal model: Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice.

    Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. Schurr A, Livne A. Differential inhibition of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase from brain by hashish components.

    Neuroprotective effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol in hypoxicischemic newborn piglets. Acute and chronic administration of cannabidiol increases mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase activity in the rat brain. Inhibiting heat shock proteins can potentiate the cytotoxic effect of cannabidiol in human glioma cells. Cannabidiol CBD and its analogs: The antitumor activity of plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Id-1 gene and protein as novel therapeutic targets for metastatic cancer. The preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. Pharmacological targeting of ion channels for cancer therapy: Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule Gene and protein as novel therapeutic targets for metastatic cancer.

    Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as potential curative agents for cancer:

    Cannabidiol

    Both THC and CBD may increase the effect of drugs used for blood thinning (e.g. Several other studies, which we'll explore further in an upcoming series. To help clear the air and find out if it's safe to use CBD with other medications, it also has an effect on how your body processes other drugs. CBD can make other drugs more effective, so much so that you can reduce the But as I said above, the effect is even stronger with CBD. Do.

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    Comments

    laspa

    Both THC and CBD may increase the effect of drugs used for blood thinning (e.g. Several other studies, which we'll explore further in an upcoming series.

    Djlich

    To help clear the air and find out if it's safe to use CBD with other medications, it also has an effect on how your body processes other drugs.

    IIpo100_TTT

    CBD can make other drugs more effective, so much so that you can reduce the But as I said above, the effect is even stronger with CBD. Do.

    StillWait

    So if you're taking CBD or planning to include CBD in your medication regimen, there's a high chance that CBD is going to affect other drugs.

    chooka

    If the dosing of CBD is low enough, it will have no noticeable effect on the P enzymes, but CBD may still exert other effects. There is no.

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