This article includes 11 facts and tips to boost your knowledge of symptoms are widespread chronic pain and debilitating fatigue. About 5. Millions suffer from acute or chronic pain every year and the effects of pain exact . service members (11 percent) reported past-month prescription drug misuse. The total economic cost of chronic pain in was estimated at more than $34 billion, including $11 billion productivity costs and $7 billion direct health care.
Pain 11 Facts About Chronic
Evidence has been brought forward linking chronic pain and mental health. Statistics indicate that one in five Australian adults suffer from both severe chronic pain and either depression or other mood disorders. There are therapies that are recognized as being beneficial apart from medication so to maximise the medication benefit and pain management, other more active strategies will need to be employed.
In fact, if physical exercise could be produced as a pill it could well be the new wonder drug. Some cognitive therapies include: Lifestyle changes are also recommended and are important ingredients in stabilising or improving pain health. These changes may include; keeping positive people around you, healthy eating, and regular physical activity and developing regular sleep patterns.
Cognitive strategies Successfully living with chronic pain involves a lot of work by the person with pain. There are no easy answers at present but these are some of the elements that can decrease suffering and pain impacts over time.
The nature of chronic pain is that it is a long-term aspect of someone's life and a key element to lessening its interference is to take on board cognitive strategies and actively schedule these into the day's routine just as one would with medication and physical strategies. An inactive job or a desk job may also lead to or contribute to pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in a chair with inadequate back support. Pre-existing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression can influence how closely one focuses on their pain as well as their perception of its severity.
Pain that becomes chronic also can contribute to the development of such psychological factors. Stress can affect the body in numerous ways, including causing muscle tension. Backpack overload in children: Low back pain unrelated to injury or other known cause is unusual in pre-teen children. However, a backpack overloaded with schoolbooks and supplies can strain the back and cause muscle fatigue.
A complete medical history and physical exam can usually identify any serious conditions that may be causing the pain. During the exam, a health care provider will ask about the onset, site, and severity of the pain; duration of symptoms and any limitations in movement; and history of previous episodes or any health conditions that might be related to the pain. Along with a thorough back examination, neurologic tests are conducted to determine the cause of pain and appropriate treatment.
The cause of chronic lower back pain is often difficult to determine even after a thorough examination. Imaging tests are not warranted in most cases. Under certain circumstances, however, imaging may be ordered to rule out specific causes of pain, including tumors and spinal stenosis. Imaging and other types of tests include:.
X-rays show the bony structures and any vertebral misalignment or fractures. Soft tissues such as muscles, ligaments, or bulging discs are not visible on conventional x-rays. Using a computer, the CT scan creates a three-dimensional image from a series of two dimensional pictures. In this procedure, a contrast dye is injected into the spinal canal, allowing spinal cord and nerve compression caused by herniated discs or fractures to be seen on an x-ray or CT scans. This procedure involves the injection of a contrast dye into a spinal disc thought to be causing low back pain.
The dye helps to show the damaged areas on CT scans taken following the injection. Discography may provide useful information in cases where people are considering lumbar surgery or when their pain has not responded to conventional treatments. Unlike x-ray, which shows only bony structures, MRI scans also produce images of soft tissues such as muscles, ligaments, tendons, and blood vessels. An MRI may be ordered if a problem such as infection, tumor, inflammation, disc herniation or rupture, or pressure on a nerve is suspected.
MRI is a noninvasive way to identify a condition requiring prompt surgical treatment. EMG assesses the electrical activity in a muscle and can detect if muscle weakness results from a problem with the nerves that control the muscles. Very fine needles are inserted in muscles to measure electrical activity transmitted from the brain or spinal cord to a particular area of the body.
In NCSs, two sets of electrodes are placed on the skin over the muscles. The first set provides a mild shock to stimulate the nerve that runs to a particular muscle. EP tests also involve two sets of electrodes—one set to stimulate a sensory nerve, and the other placed on the scalp to record the speed of nerve signal transmissions to the brain. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream and will collect in the bones, particularly in areas with some abnormality.
Scanner-generated images can be used to identify specific areas of irregular bone metabolism or abnormal blood flow, as well as to measure levels of joint disease. Ultrasound imaging , also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, uses high-frequency sound waves to obtain images inside the body. The sound wave echoes are recorded and displayed as a real-time visual image. Ultrasound imaging can show tears in ligaments, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissue masses in the back.
Potential tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Blood tests may also detect HLA-B27, a genetic marker in the blood that is more common in people with ankylosing spondylitis or reactive arthritis a form of arthritis that occurs following infection in another part of the body, usually the genitourinary tract.
Treatment for low back pain generally depends on whether the pain is acute or chronic. In general, surgery is recommended only if there is evidence of worsening nerve damage and when diagnostic tests indicate structural changes for which corrective surgical procedures have been developed.
Bed rest should be limited. Individuals should begin stretching exercises and resume normal daily activities as soon as possible, while avoiding movements that aggravate pain. Strong evidence shows that persons who continue their activities without bed rest following onset of low back pain appeared to have better back flexibility than those who rested in bed for a week. Other studies suggest that bed rest alone may make back pain worse and can lead to secondary complications such as depression, decreased muscle tone, and blood clots in the legs.
Strengthening exercises , beyond general daily activities, are not advised for acute low back pain, but may be an effective way to speed recovery from chronic or subacute low back pain. Maintaining and building muscle strength is particularly important for persons with skeletal irregularities. Health care providers can provide a list of beneficial exercises that will help improve coordination and develop proper posture and muscle balance.
Evidence supports short- and long-term benefits of yoga to ease chronic low back pain. A wide range of medications are used to treat acute and chronic low back pain. Certain drugs, even those available OTC, may be unsafe during pregnancy, may interact with other medications, cause side effects, or lead to serious adverse effects such as liver damage or gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeding.
Consultation with a health care provider is advised before use. The following are the main types of medications used for low back pain:.
Manipulation involves a rapid movement over which the individual has no control; mobilization involves slower adjustment movements. The techniques have been shown to provide small to moderate short-term benefits in people with chronic low back pain.
Evidence supporting their use for acute or subacute low back pain is generally of low quality. Neither technique is appropriate when a person has an underlying medical cause for the back pain such as osteoporosis, spinal cord compression, or arthritis. Some people experience pain relief while in traction, but that relief is usually temporary.
Once traction is released the back pain tends to return. There is no evidence that traction provides any longterm benefits for people with low back pain.
It involves the insertion of thin needles into precise points throughout the body. Others who may not believe in the concept of Qi theorize that when the needles are inserted and then stimulated by twisting or passing a low-voltage electrical current through them naturally occurring painkilling chemicals such as endorphins, serotonin, and acetylcholine are released.
The therapy involves the attachment of electrodes to the skin and the use of an electromyography machine that allows people to become aware of and selfregulate their breathing, muscle tension, heart rate, and skin temperature. People regulate their response to pain by using relaxation techniques.
Biofeedback is often used in combination with other treatment methods, generally without side effects. Evidence is lacking that biofeedback provides a clear benefit for low back pain.
Nerve block approaches range from injections of local anesthetics, botulinum toxin, or steroids into affected soft tissues or joints to more complex nerve root blocks and spinal cord stimulation. When extreme pain is involved, low doses of drugs may be administered by catheter directly into the spinal cord. The success of a nerve block approach depends on the ability of a practitioner to locate and inject precisely the correct nerve.
Chronic use of steroid injections may lead to increased functional impairment. Pain relief associated with the injections, however, tends to be temporary and the injections are not advised for long-term use. An NIH-funded randomized controlled trial assessing the benefit of epidural steroid injections for the treatment of chronic low back pain associated with spinal stenosis showed that long-term outcomes were worse among those people who received the injections compared with those who did not.
The theory is that stimulating the nervous system can modify the perception of pain. More recent studies, however, have produced mixed results on its effectiveness for providing relief from low back pain. When other therapies fail, surgery may be considered an option to relieve pain caused by serious musculoskeletal injuries or nerve compression. It may be months following surgery before the patient is fully healed, and he or she may suffer permanent loss of flexibility. Surgical procedures are not always successful, and there is little evidence to show which procedures work best for their particular indications.
Patients considering surgical approaches should be fully informed of all related risks. Next, the region is heated, resulting in localized destruction of the target nerves. Pain relief associated with the technique is temporary and the evidence supporting this technique is limited.
Recurring back pain resulting from improper body mechanics is often preventable by avoiding movements that jolt or strain the back, maintaining correct posture, and lifting objects properly. Many work-related injuries are caused or aggravated by stressors such as heavy lifting, contact stress repeated or constant contact between soft body tissue and a hard or sharp object , vibration, repetitive motion, and awkward posture.
Using ergonomically designed furniture and equipment to protect the body from injury at home and in the workplace may reduce the risk of back injury. The use of lumbar supports in the form of wide elastic bands that can be tightened to provide support to the lower back and abdominal muscles to prevent low back pain remains controversial.
Low Back Pain Fact Sheet
CHRONIC PAIN FACTS. Chronic pain can be defined as pain that persists most days or every day for six months or more. For some individuals. When you have chronic pain, it's hard to sort out the myths from the facts. To feel better, are you supposed to rest in bed or go jogging? Should. In order to understand the consequences of chronic pain, In this article, we bring you the key facts and statistics related to who is affected by chronic pain, .. /magazine/issues/spring11/articles/spring11pghtml [Accessed.