Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions. Chemical compounds are separated by heating them to a temperature at. Crude oil is a finite resource. Petrol and other fuels are produced from it using fractional distillation. Cracking is used to convert long alkanes into shorter, more . Fractional Distillation is the separation of two miscible liquids by taking advantage of their different boiling points.
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A common pattern in chemistry is that larger molecules have higher boiling points than smaller ones. Alkanes are no exception: Fractional distillation uses this fact to separate the chains.
Raw crude oil is pumped into a fractionation chamber , which is hot at the bottom about o C and cool at the top about 25 o C , and has special condensation slats built in all the way up the sides. The final result is that the crude oil is separated into many fractions, each containing alkanes of a similar length. What are the products used for? The main use for the alkanes separated by fractional distillation is as fuels. Shorter chain alkanes, such as refinery gases or petrol, are used to power smaller machines like gas lamps or cars.
Longer chain alkanes, such as kerosene or fuel oil, are used to power heavy-duty vehicles including aeroplanes and ships.
What happens after fractionation? One problem of fractional distillation is that we get many long chain alkanes, but shorter chains are much more useful. During this process, the long alkanes are broken up into short alkanes and alkenes. Alkenes have a double bond, which means they can be turned into polymers to make plastics, or alcohols and other derivatives. All subjects All locations.
5.3.C: Uses of Fractional Distillation
Did you know that fractional distillation is commonly practiced by oil refineries using crude oil for the production of gasoline fuel? In this. Fractional Distillation is used for both oil refining and purification of reagents and products. Fractional distillation is used in oil refineries (Figure. Fractional distillation is a special type of distillation designed to separate a mixture of two or more liquids that have different boiling points.