Marijuana withdrawal & the depression that follows: Overcoming addiction While it may not take quite that long in every case, it can and usually does take longer I have seen people make progress more easily when they are able to get Ask your doctor to start you on a low dose, and increase your dose very slowly. Recent studies have taken a look at the effects of medical marijuana on They guide you through the process. . clinical trial before any conclusive evidence can be produced. If you truly believe that pot is addictive you are ignoring the actual It's the THC that prevents build-up though, not the CBD. People can develop tolerance to both illicit drugs and prescription medications. dose of cocaine 40 minutes later does not result in a dose-dependent increase in the If an individual with drug dependence stops taking that drug suddenly, that Just as some drugs that cause dependence are not addictive, there are also.
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The language began to shift, too. This, too, was crucial. While drug-related death, incarceration and infection rates plummeted, the country still had to deal with the health complications of long-term problematic drug use.
Diseases including hepatitis C, cirrhosis and liver cancer are a burden on a health system that is still struggling to recover from recession and cutbacks. They criticise the state for dragging its feet on establishing supervised injection sites and drug consumption facilities; for failing to make the anti-overdose medication naloxone more readily available; for not implementing needle-exchange programmes in prisons. Where, they ask, is the courageous spirit and bold leadership that pushed the country to decriminalise drugs in the first place?
Drugs were denounced as evil, drug users were demonised, and proximity to either was criminally and spiritually punishable. Informal treatment approaches and experiments were rushed into use throughout the country, as doctors, psychiatrists, and pharmacists worked independently to deal with the flood of drug-dependency disorders at their doors, sometimes risking ostracism or arrest to do what they believed was best for their patients.
Lopes was the first doctor in continental Europe to experiment with substitution therapy, flying in methadone powder from Boston, under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice, rather than the Ministry of Health.
His efforts met with a vicious public backlash and the disapproval of his peers, who considered methadone therapy nothing more than state-sponsored drug addiction. In Lisbon, Odette Ferreira, an experienced pharmacist and pioneering HIV researcher, started an unofficial needle-exchange programme to address the growing Aids crisis.
She received death threats from drug dealers, and legal threats from politicians. She collected donations of clothing, soap, razors, condoms, fruit and sandwiches, and distributed them to users.
When dealers reacted with hostility, she snapped back: A flurry of expensive private clinics and free, faith-based facilities emerged, promising detoxes and miracle cures, but the first public drug-treatment centre run by the Ministry of Health — the Centro das Taipas in Lisbon — did not begin operating until But Porto was at the other end of the country.
To get around that, Pereira sometimes asked a nurse to sneak methadone to him in the boot of his car. Now 68, he is sprightly and charming, with an athletic build, thick and wavy white hair that bounces when he walks, a gravelly drawl and a bottomless reserve of warmth.
By the time he finished school, got his licence and began practising medicine at a health centre in the southern city of Faro, it was everywhere. Like Pereira, he accidentally ended up specialising in treating drug addiction. These kinds of centres have used different names and acronyms over the years, but are still commonly referred to as Centros de Atendimento a Toxicodependentes , or CATs. Local residents were vehemently opposed, and the doctors were improvising treatments as they went along.
It had become clear to a growing number of practitioners that the most effective response to addiction had to be personal, and rooted in communities.
Treatment was still small-scale, local and largely ad hoc. He found the practice of jailing people for taking drugs to be counterproductive and unethical.
He recommended that drug use be discouraged without imposing penalties, or further alienating users. The resulting recommendations, including the full decriminalisation of drug use, were presented in , approved by the council of ministers in , and a new national plan of action came into effect in He has been the lodestar throughout eight alternating conservative and progressive administrations; through heated standoffs with lawmakers and lobbyists; through shifts in scientific understanding of addiction and in cultural tolerance for drug use; through austerity cuts, and through a global policy climate that only very recently became slightly less hostile.
Every family had their addict, or addicts. This was universal in a way that the society felt: A drop-in centre called IN-Mouraria sits unobtrusively in a lively, rapidly gentrifying neighbourhood of Lisbon, a longtime enclave of marginalised communities. From 2pm to 4pm, the centre provides services to undocumented migrants and refugees; from 5pm to 8pm, they open their doors to drug users. A staff of psychologists, doctors and peer support workers themselves former drug users offer clean needles, pre-cut squares of foil, crack kits, sandwiches, coffee, clean clothing, toiletries, rapid HIV testing, and consultations — all free and anonymous.
On the day I visited, young people stood around waiting for HIV test results while others played cards, complained about police harassment, tried on outfits, traded advice on living situations, watched movies and gave pep talks to one another. They varied in age, religion, ethnicity and gender identity, and came from all over the country and all over the world. When a slender, older man emerged from the bathroom, unrecognisable after having shaved his beard off, an energetic young man who had been flipping through magazines threw up his arms and cheered.
He then turned to a quiet man sitting on my other side, his beard lush and dark hair curling from under his cap, and said: And he would know. He had stopped doing speedballs mixtures of cocaine and opiates after several painful, failed treatment attempts, each more destructive than the last. He long used cannabis as a form of therapy — methadone did not work for him, nor did any of the inpatient treatment programmes he tried — but the cruel hypocrisy of decriminalisation meant that although smoking weed was not a criminal offence, purchasing it was.
His last and worst relapse came when he went to buy marijuana from his usual dealer and was told: After this relapse, he embarked on a new relationship, and started his own business. At one point he had more than 30 employees. Then the financial crisis hit. I met Raquel and Sareia — their slim forms swimming in the large hi-vis vests they wear on their shifts — who worked with Crescer na Maior , a harm-reduction NGO. Six times a week, they loaded up a large white van with drinking water, wet wipes, gloves, boxes of tinfoil and piles of state-issued drug kits: Portugal does not yet have any supervised injection sites although there is legislation to allow them, several attempts to open one have come to nothing , so, Raquel and Sareia told me, they go out to the open-air sites where they know people go to buy and use.
The man looked sheepish. He was accompanied by his beaming girlfriend, and waved a warm goodbye to the girls as they handed him a square of foil. In the foggy northern city of Porto, peer support workers from Caso — an association run by and for drug users and former users, the only one of its kind in Portugal — meet every week at a noisy cafe. They come here every Tuesday morning to down espressos, fresh pastries and toasted sandwiches, and to talk out the challenges, debate drug policy which, a decade and a half after the law came into effect, was still confusing for many and argue, with the warm rowdiness that is characteristic of people in the northern region.
I was told this again and again in the north: Some people are able to use drugs for years without any major disruption to their personal or professional relationships. It only became a problem, they told me, when it became a problem.
Caso was supported by Apdes , a development NGO with a focus on harm reduction and empowerment, including programmes geared toward recreational users. I was told more than once that if drugs were legalised, not just decriminalised, then these substances would be held to the same rigorous quality and safety standards as food, drink and medication.
High-level UNgass meetings are convened every 10 years to set drug policy for all member states, addressing trends in addiction, infection, money laundering, trafficking and cartel violence. In some cases when people take higher concentrations of CBD it may activate the 5-HTIA receptor, which is a serotonin receptor, and this is why people feel CBD has an anti-depressant effect. Also important to understand when looking at how CBD works is the fact that when someone takes it, it blocks the psychoactive effects of THC, so people can take advantage of what some say are the benefits of CBD without the mind-altering effects of THC.
There are several steps that go into making CBD oil, particularly when it comes to producing a high-quality product. Choosing high-quality plants are relevant because the right plant strains will be naturally high in CBD. Once plants are grown, they may be turned into CBD oil using something called a whole plant extraction process, or manufacturers may isolate what they determine is pure CBD. With this, there are various pressure and temperature controls that have to be monitored as the CO2 is pushed through the plant.
The cannabinoid solution needed for the CBD oil then reacts and separates from the rest of the plant. THC is a shorter name for tetrahydrocannabinol. People have cannabinoid receptors throughout their central nervous system that influence things like thinking, coordination, and memory. When you use marijuana, the THC found in the substance attaches to these receptors, thus the changes in things like sensory and time perception that may occur when a person is high.
Cannabinoids, on the other hand, are just another compound found in these plants, both marijuana and hemp. THC can affect your body in many ways because when you use it, your brain is then triggered to release the chemical dopamine. This is why you may experience a euphoric high, and this is not unlike what happens with other drugs. THC also changes how information is processed in your brain, particularly in the hippocampus.
When someone takes THC, it will usually start to affect them in anywhere from 10 to 20 minutes, and these effects may last for up to two hours. People are eating larger quantities of these edibles and thereby ingesting more THC as well. Despite the potential risk, there is some evidence that THC and marijuana may be helpful for cancer patients and other medicinal purposes. In some cases, researchers are working on extracting THC from marijuana for FDA-approved drugs to help with symptoms such as nausea and loss of appetite.
There are differences in the amount of THC in cannabis as well. Hemp is an example of a type of cannabis with a low THC concentration. There are some strains of cannabis with as little as 0. The biggest difference between CBD vs. The big difference in CBD vs. THC boils down to the CB1 receptors, which as was touched on above, are located in the central nervous system.
When someone takes THC, and it binds to the CB1 receptors, it stimulates them, and that activation leads to the effects of the drug, such as the euphoric high or the sense of relaxation. In a lot of ways, THC replicates the action of a certain neurotransmitter, which is anandamide, and this increases the appetite of the user and leads them to eat more than they would normally because of the pleasure and reward reactions it creates. On the other hand, the difference between CBD vs.
Because of the difference in receptor activation, some have dubbed THC the bad cannabinoid and CBD the good one, and there are differences in state laws regarding access to the two substances, but some researchers believe CBD and THC work better together than separately when it comes to using these cannabis derived substances medicinally.
The variances seen when looking at CBD vs. THC boil down to very small anatomical differences between the two. High CBD Cannabis vs. THC and looking at the cannabis plant in general. In the traditional cannabis market where people wanted these products to get high, the goal was to use strains of the plant with high levels of THC. However, as cannabis has increasingly become seen as a medicinal option, there is more focus on sourcing strains that are high in CBD and low in THC. Another common question people have when looking at CBD vs.
According to the NIH, there are more than 80 active cannabinoid chemicals in the marijuana plant, and CBD is only one of those. The NIH goes on to say that while there is still the need for in-depth clinical studies regarding the effects of CBD and CBD benefits for specific conditions, preclinical research has shown there may be some positive effects of this substance. There are early findings that show they could help when people are addicted to drugs such as morphine and heroin.
At present, research on the effects of CBD is focused on the treatment of substance use disorders, looking at whether it could be helpful to help treat neuropathic pain and looking at the use of CBD as a way to help with seizure disorders. Helping Anxiety or Making It Worse? As was touched on above, one of the primary reasons people use CBD, particularly high CBD strains, is to treat anxiety.
There has been promising research showing that CBD, particularly high CBD strains, may work to help people reduce their symptoms of stress and anxiety, however as with everything else related to CBD, more research will need to be done. Proponents of using high CBD strains for the treatment of anxiety symptoms say it can help with panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD and mild to moderate depression.
This allows for more transmission of serotonin signals by the brain, which is believed to help boost the mood of people taking these drugs and also reduce their anxiety. So if there is the potential for CBD to help symptoms of anxiety and depression, are there particular strains that are even more effective than others? There are many different CBD-high strains available for people who are considering the use of CBD as a way to treat anxiety.
For example, there are some products that have 11 percent or more CBD, and it can be a great way to take the edge off anxiety or to boost moods when you have depression. So to sum up, if you wonder whether high CBD strains help anxiety or make it worse, they do tend to make it better as long as the strain is high only in CBD and not simultaneously high in THC. Strains of cannabis high in THC can amplify symptoms of anxiety in some people.
While it could seem like CBD oil has excellent promise in treating a variety of serious conditions, people wonder whether or not there are side effects. Some of the possible side effects that may occur in a few users can include mild low blood pressure, slowed thoughts or movements, dry mouth, lightheadedness, and sedation. There may also be a small percentage of people who notice effects on their mood or their thoughts when using CBD oil, similar to what they would experience with psychoactive forms of cannabis.
CBD and Cancer Along with treating conditions like epilepsy and anxiety, there is also a lot of research and interest regarding CBD and cancer. People wonder with CBD and cancer if it can help. Medical marijuana is frequently used by people with cancer, primarily as a way to mitigate the symptoms of chemotherapy and other treatments such as nausea and vomiting, and it can also be used to help with pain relief more naturally with cancer patients.
So what about CBD and cancer? According to the NIH National Cancer Center, there are substances such as dronabinol and nabilone that are approved by the FDA for the treatment of side effects related to cancer, and this highlights the fact that there may be therapeutic benefits with cannabinoids. In general, the NIH National Cancer Center says that medicinal cannabis may help people who live with cancer by providing pain relief, better quality of sleep, and appetite stimulation, and there are more doctors that are seeking out the use of cannabis and cannabinoid products to help cancer patients.
Along with helping treat some symptoms of cancer, the NIH National Cancer Center also points out that studies done in animals have shown that the use of cannabinoids may help protect against tumor development, so they are believed to have some antitumor effects.
Mental Health First Aid. Don't wait another day. Help is a phone call away. What is CBD and what is cannabidiol?
Effects And Side Effects Of Marijuana Abuse
Edibles are food products infused with cannabis extract. . and smoked cannabis when dose and time after administration are taken into In addition, despite an overall increase in acceptance of cannabis, . They also reported that it was practical to consume the entire edible product in one Current Addiction Reports. There are some negative effects of cannabis use other than addiction, most Cannabis has been known for centuries to increase appetite and food consumption .. of the respondents had taken cannabis and % of these described some form of benefit . The daily use of THC was not associated with clinical tolerance. Cannabidiol is also called CBD, so these two are the same thing, and they are a Hemp and marijuana are derived from the same the species of cannabis, but their . In some cases when people take higher concentrations of CBD it may is the fact that edibles have become more popular and that may increase the risk of.