Answer your medical questions on prescription drugs, vitamins and Over the Counter medications. Find medical information, terminology and advice including . Medications and prescription drug information for consumers and medical health professionals. Online database of the most popular drugs and their side effects. Each anxiety disorder has different symptoms. Medication is often used in conjunction with psychotherapy and exercise to treat anxiety.
Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. Even more recently, scientists have been able to understand the shape of biological molecules at the atomic level, and to use that knowledge to design see drug design drug candidates. Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials. One or more of these steps may, but not necessarily, involve computer-aided drug design.
Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. The "final product" of drug discovery is a patent on the potential drug. Small companies have a critical role, often then selling the rights to larger companies that have the resources to run the clinical trials.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. The regulation of drugs varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia.
The role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed mainly to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered before they are allowed to be marketed. There is usually some degree of restriction of the availability of certain therapeutic goods depending on their risk to consumers.
Depending upon the jurisdiction , drugs may be divided into over-the-counter drugs OTC which may be available without special restrictions, and prescription drugs , which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner in accordance with medical guidelines due to the risk of adverse effects and contraindications.
The precise distinction between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction. A third category, "behind-the-counter" drugs, is implemented in some jurisdictions.
These do not require a prescription, but must be kept in the dispensary , not visible to the public, and only be sold by a pharmacist or pharmacy technician.
Doctors may also prescribe prescription drugs for off-label use — purposes which the drugs were not originally approved for by the regulatory agency. The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals helps guide the referral process between pharmacists and doctors.
They publish a lengthy list of chemicals and plants whose trade and consumption where applicable is forbidden. OTC drugs are sold without restriction as they are considered safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves accidentally by taking it as instructed. Medical errors include overprescription and polypharmacy , misprescription, contraindication and lack of detail in dosage and administrations instructions.
In the definition of a prescription error was studied using a Delphi method conference; the conference was motivated by ambiguity in the what a prescription error and a need to use a uniform definition in studies. In many jurisdictions drug prices are regulated. In Canada, the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board examines drug pricing and determines if a price is excessive or not. In these circumstances, drug manufacturers must submit a proposed price to the appropriate regulatory agency.
Furthermore, "the International Therapeutic Class Comparison Test is responsible for comparing the National Average Transaction Price of the patented drug product under review"  different countries that the prices are being compared to are the following: In the United States, drug costs are unregulated, but instead are the result of negotiations between drug companies and insurance companies. High prices have been attributed to monopolies given to manufacturers by the government and a lack of ability for organizations to negotiate prices.
Interestingly, despite the enormous advances in science and technology, the number of new blockbuster drugs has halved roughly every 9 years since This was ascribed to the fact that every new drug competes in effectiveness with every other drugs known so far, other economic factors and ever-tightening regulations.
Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in thanks to Gerhard Domagk;  and were coined the "wonder drugs". The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U. Penicillin, introduced a few years later, provided a broader spectrum of activity compared to sulfa drugs and reduced side effects.
Streptomycin, found in , proved to be the first drug effective against the cause of tuberculosis and also came to be the best known of a long series of important antibiotics. A second generation of antibiotics was introduced in the s: Aureomycin was the best known of the second generation.
Lithium was discovered in the 19th century for nervous disorders and its possible mood-stabilizing or prophylactic effect; it was cheap and easily produced. As lithium fell out of favor in France, valpromide came into play. This antibiotic was the origin of the drug that eventually created the mood stabilizer category.
Valpromide had distinct psychotrophic effects that were of benefit in both the treatment of acute manic states and in the maintenance treatment of manic depression illness. Psychotropics can either be sedative or stimulant; sedatives aim at damping down the extremes of behavior. Stimulants aim at restoring normality by increasing tone.
Soon arose the notion of a tranquilizer which was quite different from any sedative or stimulant. The term tranquilizer took over the notions of sedatives and became the dominant term in the West through the s. In Japan, during this time, the term tranquilizer produced the notion of a psyche-stabilizer and the term mood stabilizer vanished. Premarin conjugated estrogens, introduced in and Prempro a combination estrogen-progestin pill, introduced in dominated the hormone replacement therapy HRT during the s.
HRT is not a life-saving drug, nor does it cure any disease. HRT has been prescribed to improve one's quality of life.
Doctors prescribe estrogen for their older female patients both to treat short-term menopausal symptoms and to prevent long-term diseases. In the s and early s more and more physicians began to prescribe estrogen for their female patients.
The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent conception. Enovid was known to be much more effective than alternatives including the condom and the diaphragm. As early as , oral contraceptives were available in several different strengths by every manufacturer.
In the s and s an increasing number of options arose including, most recently, a new delivery system for the oral contraceptive via a transdermal patch.
In , a new version of the Pill was introduced, known as the "biphasic" pill. By , a new triphasic pill was approved. Physicians began to think of the Pill as an excellent means of birth control for young women.
Stimulants such as Ritalin methylphenidate came to be pervasive tools for behavior management and modification in young children. Ritalin was first marketed in for narcolepsy; its potential users were middle-aged and the elderly. It wasn't until some time in the s along with hyperactivity in children that Ritalin came onto the market. Consumption of methylphenidate in the U. The first minor tranquilizer was Meprobamate.
Only fourteen months after it was made available, meprobamate had become the country's largest-selling prescription drug. By , meprobamate had become the fastest-growing drug in history. The popularity of meprobamate paved the way for Librium and Valium, two minor tranquilizers that belonged to a new chemical class of drugs called the benzodiazepines. These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants.
The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three months after it was approved, Librium had become the most prescribed tranquilizer in the nation. Three years later, Valium hit the shelves and was ten times more effective as a muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant.
Valium was the most versatile of the minor tranquilizers. Later came the widespread adoption of major tranquilizers such as chlorpromazine and the drug reserpine.
In sales began to decline for Valium and Librium, but sales of new and improved tranquilizers, such as Xanax, introduced in for the newly created diagnosis of panic disorder, soared. Mevacor lovastatin is the first and most influential statin in the American market.
The launch of Pravachol pravastatin , the second available in the United States, and the release of Zocor simvastatin made Mevacor no longer the only statin on the market.
In , Viagra was released as a treatment for erectile dysfunction. Using plants and plant substances to treat all kinds of diseases and medical conditions is believed to date back to prehistoric medicine. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus , the oldest known medical text of any kind, dates to about BC and represents the first documented use of any kind of drug.
Ancient Babylonian medicine demonstrate the use of prescriptions in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Medicinal creams and pills were employed as treatments. On the Indian subcontinent, the Atharvaveda , a sacred text of Hinduism whose core dates from the 2nd millennium BC, although the hymns recorded in it are believed to be older, is the first Indic text dealing with medicine.
It describes plant-based drugs to counter diseases. The Hippocratic Oath for physicians, attributed to 5th century BC Greece, refers to the existence of "deadly drugs", and ancient Greek physicians imported drugs from Egypt and elsewhere. Medieval medicine saw advances in surgery, but few truly effective drugs existed, beyond opium found in such extremely popular drugs as the "Great Rest" of the Antidotarium Nicolai at the time  and quinine.
Folklore cures and potentially poisonous metal-based compounds were popular treatments. Theodoric Borgognoni , — , one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period, responsible for introducing and promoting important surgical advances including basic antiseptic practice and the use of anaesthetics. Garcia de Orta described some herbal treatments that were used.
For most of the 19th century, drugs were not highly effective, leading Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. During the First World War , Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation, Dakin's solution, a germicide which helped prevent gangrene. In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War saw the introduction of widespread and effective antimicrobial therapy with the development and mass production of penicillin antibiotics, made possible by the pressures of the war and the collaboration of British scientists with the American pharmaceutical industry.
Medicines commonly used by the late s included aspirin , codeine , and morphine for pain; digitalis , nitroglycerin , and quinine for heart disorders, and insulin for diabetes.
Other drugs included antitoxins , a few biological vaccines, and a few synthetic drugs. In the s antibiotics emerged: Drugs increasingly became "the center of medical practice". Increasingly, biotechnology is used to discover biopharmaceuticals. In the s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine , were designed in laboratories and slowly came into preferred use. Although often accepted as an advance in some ways, there was some opposition, due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia.
Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the drugs when not subject to psychiatric control. Governments have been heavily involved in the regulation of drug development and drug sales.
The Humphrey-Durham Amendment required certain drugs to be sold by prescription. In a subsequent amendment required new drugs to be tested for efficacy and safety in clinical trials. Until the s, drug prices were not a major concern for doctors and patients. As more drugs became prescribed for chronic illnesses, however, costs became burdensome, and by the s nearly every U. Consult your doctor before making any changes in your medication. How long you take medication really depends on your particular needs.
Some people are able to discontinue medication when their symptoms have fully subsided and they have reached their treatment goals. Others may need to remain on medication for longer periods of time as part of a long-term recovery plan.
Mental Health America may provide contact information to other third party organizations. These contact listings are provided for convenience of reference only and are not intended as an endorsement by Mental Health America of the organization or a warranty of any type regarding the organization or any services or products the third party organization may provide.
The links on this page may contain document data that requires additional software to open: Understanding Trauma Back to School: Recognizing Depression Back to School: Recognizing Anxiety Back to School: Recognizing Psychosis Back to School: Diet and Nutrition Fitness 4Mind4Body: How can I get help paying for my prescriptions? What do I need to know about my insurance benefits? What can I do if my insurance company is refusing to approve?
Many mental health consumers, as well as concerned family and friends, seek information to help them better understand the benefits of prescribed medications, potential side effects, and to help them in talking with their doctor about such matters.
Mental Health America encourages consumers to talk with their doctor regarding any medication-related questions or concerns and to inform him or her about all the medications being taken so that negative drug interactions can be avoided.
In addition to talking with their doctor, many consumers and their family members want to consult other information sources. Medication Decisions When you're feeling overwhelmed or confused, it's understandable that you might want to let others make medication decisions for you. The following tips can help you decide about taking a medication: Ask your provider how the medication is supposed to help with your specific concerns. Also find out about any possible side effects.
You might consider taking notes, since it can be hard to remember a lot of information, especially when you aren't feeling well. You also might ask a friend or relative to go with you for emotional support and to help keep track of important information.
Talk with others with similar experiences. Self-help groups and peer specialists-people with mental health conditions who are trained to help-can provide great first-hand information. Remember that every person is different, but you can learn from the experiences of others. Think about your priorities and goals. Is relief from symptoms extremely important? If not, maybe you're willing to live with some symptoms to avoid side effects.
What are your main life goals? How might medication help? Sometimes the only way to know if a medication is right for you is to try it.
You may find that it helps you feel much better. If not, you can decide to stop later.
A medication is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on . Welcome to our Prescription Drug Info, powered by MediResource. This is your source for easy-to-use information on Canadian prescription drugs. This list displays both VA-issued prescriptions in your electronic health record at VA Medical Centers; and medications, prescriptions and supplements YOU.