There are countless variables such as weight, diet, metabolism, genetics, environment, CBD hemp oil comes in seemingly endless forms, each with a different concentration of CBD dissolvable powders containing CBD ( oftentimes blended with other adaptogenic herbs) Instant, 45mins-1 hour, – Daily cannabis users. Knowing how much CBD oil to take can be confusing. There are a number of variables to consider when finding the right dose for you. Anywhere between 1- 3mg makes a good starting point. of users have complained of tiredness after using CBD oil, especially with higher doses, although this is rare. will accelerate as both target new customers . Method of CBD Oil Administration Among Survey Participants .. Variable. High CBD. Negligible THC. Source: Hemp Business Journal estimates (consumer sales).
is a dosage variable between users CBD
Somnolence, diarrhea, and decreased appetite were the most common CBD-associated adverse events Table 2. Eighteen of the 22 CBD-treated patients who developed somnolence were on clobazam comedication. Adverse events appeared mostly during the first two weeks of therapy, and there were instances in which the dose of CBD or other medications were reduced.
No information, however, was reported on how often the dose of concomitant clobazam was reduced. Eight patients in the CBD group discontinued the trial prematurely due to adverse events in three cases, marked elevation of liver enzymes , compared with one patient in the placebo group who also had a marked elevation in liver enzymes. Overall, elevated aminotransferases levels occurred in 12 patients in the CBD group and one in the placebo group, all of whom were on concomitant valproate therapy.
In the nine patients with raised aminotransferases who did not discontinued treatment, liver enzymes reverted to normal on continuation of therapy.
Adverse events most commonly reported in the randomized double-bind placebo-controlled trial of CBD in comparison with placebo in patients with Dravet syndrome Overall, this trial provides for the first time robust evidence that CBD added-on to pre-existing AED treatment reduces the frequency of convulsive seizures in children and young adults with Dravet syndrome.
Interestingly, no significant differences between groups were found in sleep scores, behavioral adaptation Vineland-II scores, and Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy scores, even though duration of treatment was relatively short and possibly insufficient to determine changes in these parameters. A major weakness in the presentation of the trial results is the failure to report changes in plasma concentrations of concomitant AEDs and, most notably, clobazam and N-desmethylclobazam.
Two well controlled double-blind trials in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have been completed, but results to date have only been reported in summary form. Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in nine CBD patients and one placebo patient. Elevations in transaminases occurred mostly in patients on concomitant valproate therapy and all resolved. Duration of the trial was 14 weeks 2-week titration and week maintenance. Total seizures were also significantly reduced in both CBD groups compared with placebo.
Some elevations in transaminases were seen. Published reports, however, provide no information on concomitant therapies, and most notably whether, and to what extent, the clinical improvement on CBD therapy could be related to elevation in serum concentrations of other medications, most notably clobazam and N-desmethylclobazam. The interest in cannabis preparations in the treatment of epilepsies, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies, has skyrocketed in recent years.
Marijuana and other cannabis products with moderate to high THC content utilized primarily for recreational purposes are generally unsuitable for this indication, not only because evidence for an anti-seizure activity of THC is equivocal and risk of seizure aggravation cannot be excluded, but also because THC is associated with many undesired effects, including addiction liability, psychiatric disorders, cognitive and motor impairment — and, possibly, also cardiovascular toxicity.
Compared with THC, CBD shows a better defined anticonvulsant profile in animal models considered to be predictive of efficacy against focal and generalized seizures. Moreover, CBD is largely devoid of adverse psychoactive effects, and is considered to lack the abuse liability associated with THC-containing products. Improvement in seizure control, often associated with additional benefits on sleep and behaviour, have been reported in a sizeable proportion of cases, 87 but interpretation of these data is made difficult by the uncontrolled nature of the observations.
Additionally, as discussed in this article, there are concerns about the quality and variability of many of the products used, 98 particularly because cannabis treatment is often initiated spontaneously by patients or caregivers without adequate medical supervision.
Evidence concerning the potential anti-seizure efficacy of cannabinoids reached a turning point in the last 12 months, with the completion of the first high-quality placebo-controlled trials of a purified oil-based liquid CBD preparation in patients with Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Therefore there is now for the first time class 1 evidence that CBD improves seizure control when added on to other AEDs in patients with two difficult-to-treat epileptic encephalopathies.
Available data, however, do not allow to conclude that CBD per se has anti-seizure activity. At least for the trial published in full, 85 a majority of patients were receiving concomitant clobazam therapy, and it is unclear whether the reported seizure benefits, as well as adverse effects, were related to a direct action of CBD, or were mediated by a previously described 5-fold elevation in plasma N-desmethylclobazam levels.
For the two studies in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, the proportion of patients on concomitant clobazam therapy was not reported, but it is likely to have been significant because clobazam is a frequently used comedication in patients with this syndrome. Clarification of the independent effects of CBD would require re-assessment of trial data for the subgroup of patients not comedicated with clobazam, or the conduction of further studies after excluding such patients or, alternatively, adjusting blindly clobazam dosages to maintain unaltered concentration of N-desmethylclobazam.
Additional well controlled studies are also desirable to determine the potential value of CBD in other seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, including refractory focal epilepsies.
One of the reasons for the utilization of cannabis products to have become so popular among patients and their caregivers is that these products are generally regarded as causing fewer adverse effects compared with traditional AEDs, partly out of the misperception that remedies derived from natural products are unlikely to be harmful.
Although these results are encouraging, further studies are required to evaluate the safety profile of CBD and other cannabis products in greater detail, particularly after long-term exposure and whenever these products are used in subpopulations potentially at risk. Elevations of liver enzymes have been frequently observed, especially in patients comedicated with valproate, and although they were generally reversible, close observation for signs suggestive of hepatic toxicity is advisable.
Nabiximols, an oromucosal spray formulation containing approximately equal amounts of THC and CBD, has been commercially available in several countries for a number of years and has a relatively extensive safety record.
Unlike THC, CBD is not associated with the development of tolerance after repeated administration in various seizure models, and there is no evidence of a withdrawal syndrome developing after CBD discontinuation. These are exciting times for research in cannabinoids. After almost four millennia of their documented medical use in the treatment of seizure disorders, we are very close to obtaining conclusive evidence of their efficacy in some severe epilepsy syndromes.
The era of evidence-based prescription of a cannabis product is within our sight. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Epilepsy Res v. Published online Dec Emilio Perucca 1, 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jul 11; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The interest in cannabis-based products for the treatment of refractory epilepsy has skyrocketed in recent years.
Cannabis, Cannabidiol, Epilepsy, Seizures, Review. Introduction The history of human use of the Cannabis plant goes back to the dawn of mankind.
Open in a separate window. Chemistry and mechanisms of action The genus Cannabis refers to a flowering plant of which there are three main species, Cannabis sativa , Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Table 1 A list of targets and actions reported for CBD based on results of studies in different experimental models and systems 24 — Pharmacological profile in experimental models of seizures and epilepsy Among the many active principles found in the cannabis plant, THC is the most widely investigated for its many actions, including its psychoactive effects and risks associated with overdose and abuse.
CBD In preclinical studies, CBD has been found to be active in a variety of seizures models, including seizures induced by maximal electro-shock 39 — 41 and by pentylentetrazole in rats and mice, 42 — 44 audiogenic seizures in rats 45 and seizures induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid, bicuculline, picrotoxin, cocaine and isoniazid but not strychnine in mice.
Clinical evidence of efficacy and safety: Well controlled randomized trials The recent flurry of research focused on the potential usefulness of cannabinoids in epilepsy has resulted in the completion of three well controlled randomized trials, all of which evaluated a liquid proprietary oral formulation of CBD. Table 2 Adverse events most commonly reported in the randomized double-bind placebo-controlled trial of CBD in comparison with placebo in patients with Dravet syndrome Double-blind trials in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome Two well controlled double-blind trials in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have been completed, but results to date have only been reported in summary form.
Conclusions and future perspectives The interest in cannabis preparations in the treatment of epilepsies, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies, has skyrocketed in recent years. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Friedman D, Sirven JI. Historical perspective on the medical use of cannabis for epilepsy: Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia. On the preparations of the Indian hemp, or Gunjah: Cannabis indica their effects on the animal system in health, and their utility in the treatment of tetanus and other convulsive diseases.
Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive disorders. ElSohly M, Gul W. Constituents of cannabis sativa. Oxford University Press; The pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy for epilepsy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Marijuana, endocannabinoids, and epilepsy: Mechoulam R, Parker LA. The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection. Cannabinoids as hippocampal network administrators.
Cannabis and endocannabinoid signaling in epilepsy. Weeding out bad waves: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are reduced in patients with untreated newly diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy.
Downregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and related molecular elements of the endocannabinoid system in epileptic human hippocampus.
Dynamic changes of CB1-receptor expression in hippocampi of epileptic mice and humans. In vivo activation of endocannabinoid system in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Medical marijuana in neurology. Detyniecki K, Hirsch L. Marijuana use in epilepsy: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. Friedman D, Devinsky O. Cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy.
N Engl J Med. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes.
Voltage-gated sodium NaV channel blockade by plant cannabinoids does not confer anticonvulsant effects per se. Molecular targets of cannabidiol in neurological disorders. Gaston TE, Friedman D. Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. Cannabidiol in medical marijuana: Cannabidiol mellows out resurgent sodium current. Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: Neurological disorders in medical use of cannabis: Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice.
When applied topically as an infused lotion, serum, oil, or salve, the antioxidant a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins E and C  in CBD oil has many benefits and can repair damage from free radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants.
Cannabinoid receptors can be found in the skin and seem to be connected to the regulation of oil production in the sebaceous glands. In fact, historical documents show that cannabis preparations have been used for wound healing in both animals and people in a range of cultures spanning the globe and going back thousands of years.
The use of concentrated cannabis and CBD oils to benefit and treat skin cancer is gaining popularity with a number of well-documented cases of people curing both melanoma and carcinoma-type skin cancers with the topical application of CBD and THC products.
Best known is the case of Rick Simpson, who cured his basal cell carcinoma with cannabis oil and now has a widely distributed line of products. Cannabis applied topically is not psychoactive. Cannabinoids have been proven to have an anti-inflammatory effect in numerous studies.
CBD engages with the endocannabinoid system in many organs throughout the body, helping to reduce inflammation systemically. The therapeutic potential is impressively wide-ranging, as inflammation is involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. The oral use of cannabis and CBD for anxiety appears in a Vedic text dated around BCE, and it is one of the most common uses of the plant across various cultures.
While THC can increase anxiety in some patients, it lowers it in others. However, CBD effects have been shown to consistently reduce anxiety when present in higher concentrations in the cannabis plant.
On its own, CBD has been shown in a number of animal and human studies to lessen anxiety. The stress-reducing effect appears to be related to activity in both the limbic and paralimbic brain areas. A research review assessed a number of international studies and concluded that CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety , and in particular social anxiety, in multiple studies and called for more clinical trials. It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending cannabidiol or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis.
At the same time, educated and aware patients can be their own highly informed health consultants. For anxiety, CBD products with a ratio of High-CBD cannabinoids can be very effective in reducing chronic anxiety, treating temporary stress, and protecting the body from the physiological effects of both.
Varieties high in linalool, a terpene shared with lavender, are known to be effective for relieving anxiety. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range, before going to the next, until symptoms subside.
The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat stress and anxiety with CBD. For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a panic or anxiety attack, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products, including CBD oil, take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect and last six to eight hours.
Herbal vaporizers that use the whole plant are also an effective delivery method. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products. The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD oil effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on eleven studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of anxiety. Elixinol Organic High Potency CBD Capsules Elixinol offers a highly concentrated, high-potency, organic whole-hemp plant CBD oil , which is naturally extracted with carbon dioxide and free of all synthetics and chemicals.
Whole-hemp plant extracts contain synergistic compounds that are believed to enhance the effectiveness and benefits of CBD. Clinical depression is a serious mood disorder characterized by persistent sadness and loss of interest, sometimes leading to decreased appetite and energy and suicidal thoughts. Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger that is believed to act as a mood stabilizer.
The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels. Whereas a low dose of THC increases serotonin, high doses cause a decrease that could worsen the condition.
CBD products with a ratio of Specifically, products made with Valentine X or Electra 4 are more energizing, helping relieve depression. When low energy is an issue, sativa or other stimulating strains can be helpful for improving energy and focus when THC can be tolerated.
Varieties that are high in the terpene limonene are recommended for mood elevation. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression.
Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues.
The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression. Research in called for clinical trials to look into the effectiveness of cannabinoids for bipolar disorder manic depression. It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low. This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety.
The scientific inquiry into cannabis over the past several decades has confirmed that it is an effective and safe analgesic for many kinds of pain. Of all the reasons that people use CBD today, pain is the most common. The same can be said of cannabis in general. In the United States, over seventy million people suffer from chronic pain, which is defined as experiencing over one hundred days per year of pain.
Physicians differentiate between neuropathic usually chronic and nociceptive pains usually time-limited , and cannabis works on most neuropathic and many nociceptive types of pain. A number of studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals.
Cannabinoids can be used along with opioid medications, and a number of studies have demonstrated that they can reduce the amount of opioids needed, lessen the buildup of tolerance, and reduce the severity of withdrawal.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD oil or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis. I had surgery for a bone tumor many years ago that reconstructed my spine in my neck and it is now breaking down. Severe pain in my right arm, shoulder and neck all day long. You can see why in these images. No cervical vertebra from C2-C8. In fact, most industrial Hemp is being harvested in previous tobacco states, where Cannabis is still illegal.
And yes, I saw my first legal hemp crop this year. It was on an old tobacco farm. I doubt that CBD would trigger a THC test—if it does the test is bunk—but you should check with a tester preferably the one for your employer. Add small increments weekly. Consider body weight, symptoms and tolerance. And the list of meds that could be affected. Not a single mention of mgs… Poor article that basically just has a lot of words to say to experiment with it and see… There should be some info of how many mgs was effective in studies for different conditions.
Hard to find any info on that anywhere and was hoping this might actually help inform. I would say for anxiety mg seems to work. Same with for treating dermatitis orally. My son has been melting down on and off all week. The oil is what is keeping him level and not having to go to the next highest level of medicine. I cannot thank your company enough. AnnCannMed customer and mother of a child on the Autism Spectrum.
Finding the right dose of CBD is definitely trial and error. Consider that when you take a prescribed pharmaceutical, the doctor has hopefully figured that the dose they are recommending of said medicine is going to suit your ailment.
Connecting with people knowledgeable about doses of CBD would be helpful. While I knew that there was no real dosage out there that would work for everyone, I found it interesting to read what he had to say about the route of administration.
What this article really got me thinking about was how long it takes the average person to find the right dosage. Not even a starting point for new patients with mg dosage.
Should one just expect the Budtender to have more knowledge than this staff Dr.? And what about this pure CBD hemp-derived oil? My experience shows that the benefits of CBD are much stronger when it is derived from whole-plant cannabis and not hemp plants. I like ratios between Most patients are taking this orally, but some like to Vape since it is faster. Be sure to wait if taken orally, since the effect can come on from hours later seems to vary a lot per patient.
This may seem very small to regular users, but there is nothing worse than your elderly patient having a first bad experience and giving up entirely. I would challenge the statement that the benefits of CBD are much stronger when its derived from whole plant cannabis. I think some of it is bias towards the non-hemp CBD. I work in a medical clinic so I see quite a few patients taking the hemp based CBD topical and tincture with significant improvement in their condition.
Also, if you take the CBD by mouth with a meal or snack that has some fat content it will increase absorption significantly. My life, appetite, and overall happiness has improved a lot. You can checkout their site for more infor and medical purchase. Just got CBD oil, comes with a 0. But I never get just CBD oil…. Unfortunately, not everyone lives in a state where THC is legal.
If so, take a Vegas vacation and stock up on the oil to bring home. But what are these figures based on? Where do the very low mgs suggested here and on support pages come from?
Is it all just anecdotal? I have a question. We asked a scientist.
How Many Milligrams of CBD Should I Take? [The RIGHT Answer…]
Routes of administration and dosage. .. a result of drug-drug interactions between CBD and patients' existing medications. Several . A version of this method has been reported on a drug user forum. . profile is variable. The experts at Honest Marijuana have created a CBD dosage Chief amongst those questions is the amount of CBD that is right for each individual. In it, record such variables as your weight, what you ate, the amount of CBD oil The only repercussion one CBD user felt when he took a high dose was a. High dose? Low dose? CBD? THC? Optimizing one's therapeutic use of . dose of cannabis – is gaining popularity among those who want the medical benefits of cannabis without the buzz. . Here are some dosing variables to consider: A veteran user may need a higher dose than a new user.