The aroma of cannabis is created by the plant's terpenes. Different strains of cannabis feature very unique aromas based on their terpene makeup. The terpenes. The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed. Hiding the smell of cannabis can be necessary to avoid the legal or social . This strain also owes heritage to the dazzling sativa White Widow.
Sativa Aroma of Cannabis
However, recent ethnopharmacology studies have shown that sativa can actually cause sleep disorders and heighten neurological and psychiatric illness. A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12—13 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day [ dubious — discuss ]. The flowering cycle can last anywhere between nine and fifteen weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions.
In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5. Tissue culture multiplication has become important in producing medically important clones,  while seed production remains the generally preferred means of multiplication. Broadly, there are three main cultivar groups of cannabis that are cultivated today:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia.
Cannabis and Cannabis cultivation. Industrial and personal uses of Cannabis , Cannabis drug , and Hemp. Norton 21 March University of California Press. Journal of Natural Products. British Journal of Pharmacology. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. ElSohly 23 May Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Drug Testing and Analysis.
Journal of Industrial Hemp. Handbook of Psychotropic Herbs: Assessing The Science Base. National Academy of Sciences Press. Retrieved 28 May Another therapeutic activities attributed to them is that of anti-inflammatories, blocking the inflammatory signal of prostagladins in a similar way to myrcene. They also act as bronchodilator in humans when they are inhaled in low concentrations.
This effect could produce a larger absorption of cannabinoids when smoking or when vaporizing Cannabis with a product rich in alpha and beta pineno, which would increase plasma concentrations and, subsequently, the cannabinoids effect. A-pinene is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that may be beneficial for memory and may reduce the negative THC effects on it, although this is no more than a mere assumption at this point.
A-pineno has also served as biosynthetic base for the ligands of the cannabinoid receptor CB2. Limonene is a cyclic carbohydrate and a main component of the essential oil of lemons and other citrus fruits, which is where its name comes from. It is also the second most widely distributed terpene in nature and it is an intermediate product in other terpenes' biosynthesis. In contrast with pinene, limonene is not found in insects, yet it still has some repellent and insecticide effects. It is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as flavouring.
Recent researche has been carried out to look at its usefulness in formulations of dermal patches, to improve the transdermal absorption of other active substances. Limonene is used in cosmetics and household cleaning product industries as a fragrance and as a biodegradable, organic and environmentally friendly solvent.
It is quickly absorbed by inhalation or by the skin and it is metabolised quickly, however there are indications it can accumulate in fatty tissues, such as brain tissue. Limonene is not toxic, nor does it cause skin irritation, yet some of its products, which are oxidised by contact with air, provoke skin and mucous irritation.
Nonetheless, limomene has therapeutic effects in certain diseases and some antiseptic properties, mainly against the bacteria responsible for acne. Studies on laboratory animals suggest that limonene has anxiolytic effects, causing a rise of serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain.
It has been shown that the dispersal of limonene in the environment has produced a decrease in the depressive symptoms of hospital patients in addition to a strong immunostimulation. Linonene also procuces apoptosis, also called cell death, in breast cancer cells. Its effectiveness is being tested in clinical trials. In adition to this, the use of limomeno against gastroesophageal reflux has been patented.
Linalool is a lineal monoterpene alcohol resulting from the main substances of the essential oil of lavender, but it is also found in many other plants. It is widely used as fragrance in cleaning and hygiene products, as an intermediate product in the chemical industry and as insecticide against flies and cockroaches, however it is not useful as an insect repellent. The essential oil of lavender eases skin burns and can even reduce the morphine intake needed, when inhaled by patients with post-operative treatment.
These effects are attributed to linalool for being the main component of the essential oil of lavender, as after its ingestion, other substances for example the monoterpene linalyl acetate, hydrolyses into linalool.
Linalool in itself has shown to have anxiolytic effects on a comparable level to local anaesthetics such as lidocaine or menthol. It also demonstrates analgesic effects in laboratory animals when mediated by adenosine A2A and glutamate receptors, as well as sedative effects by inhalation. In addition to these effects, linalool has anti-seizure properties that inhibit glutamatergic activity and is also able to decrease the release of neurotransmitters of the neurons under glutamate stimulation.
In this way, we could argue that the sedative, anxiolytic and anti-seizure effects have their mechanism of action based on the modulation of the glutamate and GABA neurotransmitters, similarly to the way the cannabinoides act.
Thus, a Cannabis plant with both THC and linalool will probably produce a significant sedative and analgesic effect, due to the synergy between the two compounds. Eucalyptol, also known as 1,8-cineol, is a monoterpene ester that makes up almost the totality of the essential oil of eucalyptus, from which it gets its name, but it is also widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
It acts as an insect repellent and insecticide, although it is produced by certain orchids to attract bees. Eucalyptol is used as food additive to add flavour. Eucalyptol is widely used in the cosmetic and chemical industries, but it is still classified as a toxin that might have a negative influence on reproduction. Some researches have shown certain clinical efficacy of eucalyptol for treating asthma and sinusitis, as well as being an anti-inflammatory and a local analgesic.
Furthermore, it has been shown to have immunosuppressive and in vitro anti-leukaemia properties. In the aforementioned study about terpenes profiles in different varieties of Cannabis, it was found that eucalyptol, carene, phellandrene and terpinolene are terpenes found almost exclusively in sativa varieties. Eucalyptol is the only one of these compounds that has been shown to be active in the CNS, which is almost unique to sativa varieties and that such varieties have a euphoriant effect different from indica varieties.
From this we can hypothesise that the synergy between THC and eucalyptol is what makes a difference regarding the qualitative difference of the activating effect of sativa varieties. That being said, the myrcene could also be responsible for the hypnotic effect of indica varieties.
Potential antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. Journal of the International Hemp Association 5 , Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, , Tisserand and Young do not indicate any special precautions when using Cannabis Essential Oil.
However, they precaution to avoid use of the oil if it has oxidized due to a greater risk of skin sensitization. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner.
If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children.
It is safest to consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. The essential oil information provided on AromaWeb is intended for educational purposes only. The references to safety information, constituents and percentages is generalized information. The data is not necessary complete and is not guaranteed to be accurate.
The essential oil photos are intended to represent the typical and approximate color of each essential oil. However, essential oil color can vary based on harvesting, distillation, age of the essential oil and other factors.
Cannabis Aroma Not a Reliable Indicator of Potency
Cannabis is most commonly associated with the chemical compounds found in the plant. Specifically, the cannabinnoids THC and CBD that. Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of α-Humulene, contributes to the characteristic aroma of Cannabis sativa; Caryophyllene, with which some hashish detection dogs are trained. It's that dank, skunky scent of marijuana. structure of more than 20, terpenes, which compose the largest category of plant chemicals.