Takeaway. CBD and THC both have medical benefits. Before you purchase or use any of them, know the laws in your state. Also, consider the possibility for side effects and interactions with other drugs you're taking. . Today, more and more people are using the term cannabis to refer to weed. I want to clarify that neither CBD or THC is better than the other. Both cannabinoids offer tremendous health benefits, and either both or one of. Here's your guide to hemp oil, CBD oil, and all the different cannabinoids. more and more states are voting in favor of recreational and/or medical marijuana. CBD and THC have been described as "sister molecules" and one of the most.
Than CBD: Is THC Other? the Cannabinoid One vs Better
Indeed, it has been shown that people scoring high in schizotypy who use cannabis are more likely to have psychosis-like experiences at the time of use, together with unpleasant side effects [ Barkus et al. This study has been replicated and it has been confirmed that those with schizotypal personality disorder carry a higher risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms with cannabis use [ Stirling et al.
Most recently, another study has provided further support for a strong association between early cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorder symptoms [ Anglin et al.
The reported vulnerability factors mentioned here imply a strong genetic predisposition and there have been a number of studies looking particularly to specific genes which have been implicated in psychoses. The first such study was carried out by Caspi and colleagues [ Caspi et al. In this longitudinal study, a specific susceptibility gene which has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT , was examined in a representative birth cohort followed to adulthood.
The study found that carriers of the COMT valine allele were most likely to exhibit psychotic symptoms and to develop schizophreniform disorder if they used cannabis before the age of However, the number of people carrying this allele was small in this study.
Using a case-only design of people with schizophrenia, Zammit and colleagues re-examined this association but their findings did not support the different effects of cannabis use on schizophrenia according to variation in COMT [ Zammit et al. More recently, van Winkel and colleagues looked at the effects of recent cannabis use whilst examining single nucleotide polymorphisms in 42 candidate genes in patients with psychosis and their unaffected siblings [ van Winkel et al. The authors found that genetic variation in serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 may mediate both short- and long-term effects on psychosis expression associated with cannabis use.
Further support for the possible involvement of the AKT1 gene comes from our study with healthy volunteers. This study found that, during the encoding and recall conditions of the verbal memory task, the induction of psychotic symptoms by dTHC was correlated with the attenuated striatal and midbrain activation only in those who were G homozygotes of AKT1 and carriers of the 9-repeat allele dopamine transporter DAT1 [ Bhattacharyya et al.
Apart from schizotypal personality, the vulnerability factors to the psychotogenic effects of cannabis require replication. It is clear that further work needs to be carried out to explore the biological mechanisms which determine the vulnerability towards a psychotic outcome. During the last decade, endocannabinoid research has been one of the fastest growing fields in psychopharmacology, opening ways to discover new medicines for a wide variety of health problems, ranging from metabolic disorders, to glaucoma and schizophrenia.
The distribution of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is interesting as the very same brain areas are also implicated in psychoses, particularly in schizophrenia. Furthermore, complex and intricate involvement of this system with other neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA and glutamatergic systems may have implications for the development of a psychotic illness.
Naturally, due to the recent and constant increase in the availability of higher THC content variants of cannabis around the world, there have been increasing concerns about the health risks, particularly for young people. However, cannabis affects people differently and therefore it is important to understand what makes someone more at risk and how they differ compared with those who do not develop psychotic illness.
Here we have provided an overview of the available information on the risk factors which may make an individual more at risk, such as predisposition to psychosis, schizotypal personality and certain susceptibility genes.
Finding groups who are vulnerable is particularly important so that they can be targeted for early preventative and therapeutic interventions.
Such a search would also lead to the discovery of the biochemical mechanisms involved in cannabis and endocannabinoid research and ultimately to a better understanding of how the brain and the body functions.
Thanks to Ethan Russo and Geoffrey W. Guy for providing the inspiration for Table 1. Also thanks to Dr Sanem Atakan for her help with the editing of the first draft.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Conflict of interest statement: The author declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ther Adv Psychopharmacol v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects.
Cannabis, deltatetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, endocannabinoids, individual sensitivity to cannabis. Introduction Cannabis is a complex plant with over chemical entities of which more than 60 of them are cannabinoid compounds, some of them with opposing effects. Brief history of the biochemistry of the cannabis plant Even though cannabis has been used and cultivated by mankind for at least years [ Li, ] our current knowledge on its pharmacological properties is based on studies which have taken place only since the end of the nineteenth century.
Open in a separate window. Chemical structures of deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Cannabinoid receptor system Another cornerstone in cannabinoid research was the identification of the specific binding sites of dTHC in the brain [ Devane et al. Cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors CB1Rs are mainly in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra, the basal ganglia, limbic system, hippocampus and cerebellum, but are also expressed in the peripheral nervous system, liver, thyroid, uterus, bones and testicular tissue [ Russo and Guy, ; Pagotto et al.
Functions of the endocannabinoid receptor system Available evidence indicates that we do not yet have a complete understanding of the varied functions of the endocannabinoid system, which is widely distributed both in the brain and in the peripheral system and most glands and organs in the body.
Cannabis plant The cannabis plant has two main subspecies, Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa , and they can be differentiated by their different physical characteristics. Deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol Natural compounds of the cannabis plant are also referred to as phytocannabinoids of which dTHC is the main psychoactive ingredient and has been widely researched both in animals and humans.
Intersubject variation in response to the psychotogenic effects of cannabis About Proposed factors determining sensitivity to psychosis in cannabis users. Sensitivity to psychosis as determined by: Possible sensitivity factors Study group Predisposition to psychosis Family history of psychotic illness McGuire et al.
Conclusion During the last decade, endocannabinoid research has been one of the fastest growing fields in psychopharmacology, opening ways to discover new medicines for a wide variety of health problems, ranging from metabolic disorders, to glaucoma and schizophrenia. J Psychoactive Drugs Biochem Biophys Res Commun J Clin Pharmacol AKT1 and DAT1 genotype modulates the effects of deltatetrahydrocannabinol on midbrain and striatal function.
Mol Psychiatry 31 January epub ahead of print. Curr Pharm Des Arch Gen Psychiatry J Biol Chem Br J Pharmacol Curr Drug Abuse Rev 5: Eur J Pharmacol Am J Addict Br J Psychiatry Handb Exp Pharmacol Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci The State of the Drug Problems in Europe.
J Affect Disord J Am Chem Soc Methods Mol Med Drug Alcohol Rev Curr Opin Psychiatry Classification of cannabinoid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther Neurochem Int 9 December epub ahead of print. THC is an agonist, or activator, of the cannabinoid 1 CB1 receptor. When cannabis is given to people who have had their CB1 receptors blocked by a different drug, called an antagonist , cannabis cannot get them high. So, we know that the CB1 receptor must be the critical target in the brain that produces intoxication.
Brain imaging studies have shown increased blood flow to the prefrontal cortex region of the brain during THC intoxication. This region of the brain is responsible for decision-making, attention, and other executive functions, like motor skills. In short, THC intoxication can affect any of these functions to varying degrees depending on the person. Ultimately, the activity in these regions produces pleasurable sensations and emotions that encourage us to revisit that greasy burger place for a calorie-dense meal or ask a potential mate out on another date.
But THC is far from the only ingredient in cannabis that has a direct impact on brain function. The most notable comparison is with cannabidiol CBD , which is the second most abundant cannabinoid found in the plant. Research suggests CBD may be better for inflammation and neuropathic pain , while THC may excel with spasticity and cramp-related pain. It is worth noting that sometimes high doses of THC can exacerbate pain symptoms. Meaning THC consumed in this capacity should be done in small amounts.
Additionally, many individuals experience difficulty managing the side effects associated with THC, rendering useless any potential benefits. Some experts suggest that a combination of THC and CBD is the ideal way to approach pain, giving validity to something known as the entourage effect.
For example, mg of isolated CBD may be substantially less effective at alleviating symptoms than mgs of a whole-plant, CBD-containing cannabis extract. Many argue that consuming the plant in its whole form provides all the necessary cofactors to facilitate proper absorption. This argument is at the heart of the debate over CBD oil from hemp vs.
CBD oil from cannabis. While it may be cheaper and more cost-effective to extract CBD from industrial hemp, users may ultimately experience less benefit due to the absence of clinically significant levels of terpenes and other compounds which occur in abundance in high-CBD marijuana. While high-CBD cultivars of cannabis do contain much higher levels of various cannabinoids, terpenes, etc.
Agricultural hemp is much closer to the kind of cannabis that one would find growing naturally in the wild, whereas high-CBD marijuana is hybridized and toyed with by growers to produce the highest levels of the desirable compounds. There is no hard science yet! It is up to each individual to decide which option is best for them.
THC is an illegal drug with considerable immediate and long-term cognitive side effects. These include impaired thinking and reasoning, a reduced ability to plan and organize, altered decision-making, and reduced control over impulses.
Also, chronic use of THC correlates with significant abnormalities in the heart and brain. Given the increasing popularity of medical cannabis, breeders are currently creating strains with higher CBD to THC ratios to minimize the psychoactive side effects.
Overall, the lower health risks of CBD, combined with its efficacy, make it a better candidate for natural applications than THC. Your email address will not be published.
Why THC Gets You High and CBD Doesn’t
As a natural pain-relief drug, some experts consider cannabis more suitable for your Different types of strains, however, suit different pain conditions, so before an informed choice about whether it's better to use a high-THC or high-CBD. Both THC & CBD interact with cannabinoid receptors, but the types of effects brought Because of this trait, CBD appears more frequently than THC in dietary and CBD has the same chemical formula as THC, with the atoms in a different . There is a big difference between THC & CBD -- one is psychoactive and the other is not. Find out which one gets you high and why the other doesn't. and one thing becomes clear: there's far more to these incredible cannabinoids than their.