Corticosteroid Dose EquivalentsOne axiom ruled bodybuilding for decades as injectable steroid doses elite explored the physiologic limits of growth: The late Steve Michalik— s bodybuilding legend who ran Mr. There was a anabolic halo price in india increase in AAS injetcable from the early injectable steroid doses of the s, when East Coast powerlifters followed the lead of Russian and East European Olympic lifters by ingesting tentative doses of methandrostenolone Dianabol ; West Coast bodybuilders were similarly developing physiques previously unseen at that time on Nilevar. John Ziegler, injectable steroid doses promoted the use of Dianabol among sterroid training at the York Barbell Club in the s and A Plethora of AAS. During the s, a plethora of AAS were developed by some of the leading pharmaceutical companies. The hunt was on dosex find analogs testosterone-derived drugs that would provide increases in muscle mass without the side effects related to androgenic or estrogenic overstimulation e.
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One axiom ruled bodybuilding for decades as the elite explored the physiologic limits of growth: The late Steve Michalik— s bodybuilding legend who ran Mr. There was a gradual increase in AAS experimentation from the early days of the s, when East Coast powerlifters followed the lead of Russian and East European Olympic lifters by ingesting tentative doses of methandrostenolone Dianabol ; West Coast bodybuilders were similarly developing physiques previously unseen at that time on Nilevar.
John Ziegler, who promoted the use of Dianabol among men training at the York Barbell Club in the s and A Plethora of AAS. During the s, a plethora of AAS were developed by some of the leading pharmaceutical companies. The hunt was on to find analogs testosterone-derived drugs that would provide increases in muscle mass without the side effects related to androgenic or estrogenic overstimulation e.
There was also a need to develop AAS that were not dependent upon alpha alkylation, as that chemical modification induces hepatotoxic liver damaging effects in a large percentage of people. A number of agents were developed, some making it to market. Few remain available today for use in humans, as opposed to veterinary applications or simply being abandoned.
Many readers are familiar with Anavar oxandrolone , Winstrol stanozolol and Anadrol oxymetholone. These AAS allowed men to use higher doses, combine drugs in stacks that complemented size and strength gains from aromatizable AAS with non-aromatizable AAS that increase vascularity and definition, or follow a bulking cycle with a cutting cycle with little or no break between.
This led to increased size and definition among bodybuilders, such as that displayed by Arnold and his contemporaries. During the mids, definition became the focus of competitors, as more defined physiques such as Frank Zane gained favor with judges and the public. This temporarily limited the use of the AAS with greater size promotion, as they often held the undesirable effect of water retention, and potentially gynecomastia.
Parabolan, Primobolan, Winstrol, Anavar and Finaject were the most sought-after drugs by bodybuilders entering competition, though many still maintained a base of testosterone or nandrolone. Size Over Symmetry and Condition. Fans of the sport watched the images of professional bodybuilders grow on the covers of the magazine throughout the s, until a sudden shift occurred.
Like a glitch in the matrix, a near-overnight gap arose in the previously linear trend of bodybuilder size. This has been collected and presented on websites featuring photographs of bodybuilders, showing that up to the early s, bodybuilders had been very gradually growing in size, from a BMI of just less than 31 to a BMI of just less than 32 over the course of almost 40 years.
Some competitors are recorded above a BMI of 41 in show condition. This huge, and it is HUGE, increase did not occur because someone discovered that syringes come in 10 cc volume, or the testosterone molecule was tweaked in an alchemical way, or even the accidental dripping of radioactive spider saliva into the vat at the pharmaceutical plant Spider-Man reference. This new generation of bodybuilder was developed under the influence of the widespread use of peptide growth factors, including insulin, human growth hormone hGH and IGF The advent of recombinant technology opened the floodgates on the supply of insulin and hGH.
Prior to the development of this technology, using bacteria to synthesize human hormones by inserting copies of DNA strands into the bacteria and stimulating production, insulin was often sourced from cows or pigs; hGH supply was reliant upon obtaining a regular supply of cadavers dead people and extracting hGH from the pituitary gland a part of the brain.
The recognition that dwarf children, the population that was receiving cadaveric hGH to treat growth retardation due to GH deficiency, were being diagnosed with a rare brain disorder caused scientists to develop hGH as the first recombinant hormone.
This allowed a small test market prior to launching the resources necessary to meet the demand that recombinant insulin would generate. Unlike the experience with AAS, early adapters dove into hGH like pigs digging for truffles, using doses based upon the protocols designed for dwarf children. This resulted in immense growth, but not just of the muscles. The bones of the face, hands and feet all grew disproportionately, and the abdomen of these men became swollen like some Willy Wonka-esque special effect.
It is likely that combined use of insulin with hGH exacerbated the abdominal presentation. Though use patterns vary, many now use hGH at a lower dose, and time insulin with meals and training. So, it should be clear that the dosing of AAS has impressive but limited benefit as a monotherapy, i. From the onset, men have developed impressive physiques with muscular hypertrophy and strength gains using modest doses of AAS.
The escalation of dosing regimens has resulted in a clearly evident, but not evolutionary increase in the muscle mass of the competitors. It also clearly aids in protecting against muscle loss during pre-contest dieting, as the mass of these men has increased concurrently with a reduction in body fat. Certain AAS have fat loss-enhancing properties, whereas others impede fat loss, but that is outside the scope of this article.
What Is the Right Dose? First, it assumes that a person does not have a health condition that would increase the risk of an adverse negative side effect, potentially fatal in some cases. Though prostate cancer and heart disease were once dogmatically thought to be caused or worsened by testosterone replacement therapy TRT or AAS misuse, it appears that this is not the case in doses that are within or close to the upper physiologic limit.
The greatest concern should lie in a history of blood clots thrombophilic disease , which can be familial relatives have a history of blood clots or spontaneous. In fact, nearly all ischemic cardiovascular events reported in people receiving TRT occur in individuals with a thrombotic condition.
Equally relevant, especially in adolescents and young adults, is the risk of a personality disorder or psychosis emerging. It is not only the grossly elevated levels of androgens circulating during cycles that may cause this, but also the rapid downward swing when going off-cycle.
It is suggested that one highly publicized case involving a high school student who was taken off AAS abruptly under the advice of a physician contributed to his suicide.
It is unclear how valid this opinion is, as the boy was also receiving psychiatric care and on some form of medication for a mental health condition.
However, the person should not have outbursts without reason. Other potential risks legal as well as health exist, and should be understood before deciding to experiment with AAS.
Testosterone Threshold and Muscle Hypertrophy. Clearly, a healthy man will not want to use an amount of AAS that does no better than his natural levels of testosterone or even worse.
Thus, it is notable that research has shown that in both young adults and older men, testosterone is essentially maintained at baseline— with statistically significant changes in muscle mass and strength when dosed at milligrams of testosterone enanthate weekly.
Increasing this to milligrams and even milligrams weekly results in dose-dependent increases in both muscle mass and strength. Harrison Pope, who has been vigorously pursuing any association between AAS misuse and various psychopathologies, noted in a study that milligrams of testosterone cypionate was well tolerated by the vast majority of subjects, with 12 percent experiencing an increase hypomanic scores on a survey and four percent showing more marked hypomania.
It is interesting that the hypomanic scores reported in the study are considered to be in the normal range in other references, suggesting the sensitivity to change may have been slightly biased to over-reporting.
An interesting paper reported on the observed testosterone threshold necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, conversations with many men receiving TRT describe increases in strength and muscle mass equal to that achieved during young adult years at a dose of milligrams of testosterone ester weekly. Topical formulations are generally found to be lacking in relevant changes in muscle mass in middle-aged men.
A dose range of to milligrams of testosterone ester weekly agrees with the field report of men self-administering AAS primarily for personal enhancement i. Very few reported use above 1, milligrams of testosterone ester weekly. The dosing studies reported earlier described an increase in fat-free mass of 7. These results would be admirable for an amateur bodybuilder, and are consistent with the physiques seen in bodybuilders of the s and s. Further, those driven to compete will find that a weighting of risk tolerance versus desire to compete needs to be evaluated regularly, as many competitors are willing to accept dangerous and risky protocols of prolonged cycles with complex stacks including peptide hormones, stimulants, diuretics, insulin and other agents.
At some point, it becomes chemical warfare, and war always has casualties. If AAS misuse is your choice, consider the power and limitations of near-physiologic dosing, and understand that there is a ceiling to the amount of size AAS can provide. Unrealistic expectations will result in dissatisfaction and a temptation to push the boundaries of relative safety and tolerance to the point where adverse effects may affect your health, relationships or otherwise impact your life negatively.
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