Meaning of "Antirheumatikum" in the German dictionaryEducalingo cookies are used to personalize ads and get web traffic statistics. We also share information about the use of the site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners. Meaning of "Antirheumatikum" in sterodale German dictionary. Definition of Antirheumatikum nicht steroidale antirheumatika wirkung the German testosterone sale Medikament gegen Rheumatismus. Synonyms and antonyms of Antirheumatikum in the German dictionary of synonyms.
Antirheumatikum translation English | German dictionary | Reverso
Im Gegensatz dazu werden Glucocorticoide als steroidale Antirheumatika bezeichnet. Seit waren bzw. Glucocorticoide — Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the receptor, that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid is composed from its role in regulation of metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex. A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid, gCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as reduction of inflammation.
They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases. GCs have many effects, including potentially harmful side effects. They also interfere with some of the mechanisms in cancer cells. This includes, inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation as in the treatment of lymphomas and leukemias, gCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor.
Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, in technical terms, corticosteroid refers to both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, but is often used as a synonym for glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are chiefly produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, cortisol is the most important human glucocorticoid.
It is essential for life, and it regulates or supports a variety of important cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, glucocorticoid effects may be broadly classified into two major categories, immunological and metabolic.
In addition, glucocorticoids play important roles in development and body fluid homeostasis. As discussed in detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.
Down-regulate the expression of proinflammatory proteins, glucocorticoids are also shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes.
This has been shown in mice with either increased or decreased sensitivity of T cell lineage to glucocorticoids. The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism, in the fasted state, cortisol stimulates several processes that collectively serve to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood.
Enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis is probably the best-known metabolic function of glucocorticoids, mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues, These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis. Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems, some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption, delayed wound healing, muscle weakness, and increased risk of infection.
The typical adult dose is mg twice daily and it is not recommended in children. It is sparingly metabolised in the liver to two inactive metabolites, most of the drug is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Renal disease impairs excretion, and it should be used with caution in renal disease, long-term use of tiaprofenic acid is associated with severe cystitis, roughly times more commonly than other NSAIDs.
It is contraindicated in patients with cystitis and urinary tract infections, the earliest reports of clinical use are from France in It is marketed under the trade names Surgam, Surgamyl and Tiaprofen, and in generic formulations.
It is an isomer of Suprofen. Indometacin — Indometacin or indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.
It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, molecules known to cause these symptoms and it is marketed under more than twelve different trade names. Indometacin is a potent drug with serious side effects and should not be considered an analgesic for minor aches. The medication is better described as an anti-inflammatory, rather than an analgesic, indometacin can also affect warfarin and subsequently raise INR.
To reduce the possibility of peptic ulcers, indometacin should be prescribed at the lowest dosage needed to achieve a therapeutic effect and it should always be taken with food. Nearly all patients benefit from an ulcer protective drug, other common gastrointestinal complaints, including dyspepsia, heartburn and mild diarrhea are less serious and rarely require discontinuation of indometacin.
Many NSAIDs, but particularly indometacin, cause lithium retention by reducing its excretion by the kidneys, thus indometacin users have an elevated risk of lithium toxicity. For patients taking lithium, less toxic NSAIDs such as sulindac or aspirin are preferred, all NSAIDs, including indometacin, also increase plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, and increase sodium and potassium retention.
These conditions also often begin with edema and hyperkalemia, paradoxically yet uncommonly, indometacin can cause headache, sometimes with vertigo and dizziness, hearing loss, tinnitus, blurred vision. There are unsubstantiated reports of worsening Parkinsons disease, epilepsy, cases of life-threatening shock, severe or lethal hepatitis and severe bone marrow damage have all been reported. Skin reactions and photosensitivity are also possible side effects, the frequency and severity of side effects and the availability of better tolerated alternatives make indometacin today a drug of second choice.
People should undergo regular physical examination to detect edema and signs of central nervous side effects, blood pressure checks will reveal development of hypertension. Periodic serum electrolyte measurements, complete blood counts and assessment of liver enzymes as well as of creatinine should be performed. No examinations are necessary if only the topical preparations are applied, indometacin has a high acute toxicity both for animals and for humans.
Exact human data does not exist, but some human cases, particularly in children. Generally, overdose in humans causes drowsiness, dizziness, severe headache, mental confusion, paresthesia, numbness of limbs, nausea, severe gastrointestinal bleeding is also possible. Oxicame — Oxicam is a class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that bind closely to plasma proteins. Most oxicams are unselective inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase enzymes, the exception is meloxicam with a slight preference for COX-2, which, however, is only clinically relevant at low doses.
Examples include, Ampiroxicam Piroxicam Tenoxicam Droxicam Lornoxicam Meloxicam Isoxicam The physico-chemical characteristics of these vary greatly depending upon the environment. In contrast to most other NSAIDs, oxicams are not carboxylic acids and they are tautomeric and can exist as number of tautomers, here exemplified by piroxicam. Tenoxicam — Tenoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It was originated by Roche but as of is sold by Meda AB under the trade name Mobiflex and it is available as a prescription-only drug in the United Kingdom and other countries, but not in the US.
Outside of the United Kingdom, tenoxicam is also marketed under names including Tilatil, Tilcitin. Tenoxicam belongs to the class of NSAIDs known as oxicams, like all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the exact mechanism of action of tenoxicam in unknown.
Involved in the mechanism of action is inhibition of cyclooxygenase which leads to the adverse effect of increased bleeding. Common side effects that have been observed with tenoxicam include peptic ulceration, dyspepsia, nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, rash, headache, edema, renal failure, and vertigo.
In rare cases, tenoxicam and other NSAIDs can contribute to thrombotic events, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and it is not recommended that women who are trying to conceive, who are pregnant, or who are breastfeeding take tenoxicam. Tenoxicam can be taken in the first and second trimester when necessary, some studies have looked at whether or not NSAIDs are able to enter the breast milk and the first few studies have found evidence that NSAIDs can be found in breast milk.
Therefore, it is not recommended that women take tenoxicam while breastfeeding, taking tenoxicam with other drugs can increase the chance of side effects or alter the therapeutic effect of tenoxicam or the other drug, depending on the combination.
Shortly thereafter, tenoxicam went to phase III clinical trials for approval as use as an analgesic began in the s, the general consensus from clinical studies is that tenoxicam has about equal analgesic effect as other NSAIDs and does not elicit any important side effects. One week is the length for treatment, but the treatment length may be extended. In , the sales level for Tilcotil was 70 million SEK. Lornoxicam — Lornoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the oxicam class with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.
It is available in oral and parenteral formulations, lornoxicam is used for the treatment of various types of pain, especially resulting from inflammatory diseases of the joints, osteoarthritis, surgery, sciatica, and other inflammations. Lornoxicam is not recommended during pregnancy and breastfeeding and is contraindicated during the last third of pregnancy, lornoxicam has side effects similar to other NSAIDs, most commonly mild ones like gastrointestinal disorders and headache.
Severe but seldom side effects include bleeding, bronchospasms and the extremely rare Stevens—Johnson syndrome, interactions with other drugs are typical of NSAIDs. Combination with vitamin K antagonists like warfarin increases the risk of bleeding, combination with ciclosporin can lead to reduced kidney function, and to acute renal failure in rare cases. Lornoxicam can also increase the effects of lithium, methotrexate and digoxin.
The effect of diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists can be reduced, as with piroxicam, cimetidine can increase plasma levels but is unlikely to cause relevant interactions. Rofecoxib gained widespread acceptance among physicians treating patients with arthritis and other conditions causing chronic or acute pain, Worldwide, over 80 million people were prescribed rofecoxib at some time.
On September 30,, Merck withdrew rofecoxib from the market because of concerns about increased risk of attack and stroke associated with long-term. COX-1 mediates the synthesis of prostaglandins responsible for protection of the lining, while COX-2 mediates the synthesis of prostaglandins responsible for pain. Interestingly, at the time of its withdrawal, rofecoxib was the only coxib with clinical evidence of its superior gastrointestinal adverse effect profile over conventional NSAIDs and this was largely based on the VIGOR study, which compared the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of rofecoxib and naproxen.
The therapeutic recommended dosages were Rofecoxib crossed the placenta and blood—brain barrier, and took 1—3 hours to reach peak concentration with an effective half-life of approximately 17 hours.
The metabolic products are cis-dihydro and trans-dihydro derivatives of rofecoxib which are excreted through urine. On March 11,, Scott S. Reuben, former chief of acute pain at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, revealed that data for 21 studies he had authored for the efficacy of the drug had been fabricated in order to augment the analgesic effects of the drugs.
There is no evidence that Reuben colluded with Merck in falsifying his data, Reuben was also a former paid spokesperson for the drug company Pfizer. The retracted studies were not submitted to either the FDA or the European Unions regulatory agencies prior to the drugs approval, Drug manufacturer Merck had no comment on the disclosure.
Aside from the incidence of gastric ulceration, rofecoxib exhibits a similar adverse effect profile to other NSAIDs. Lumiracoxib — Since its original approval, lumiracoxib has been withdrawn from the market in several countries, mostly due to its potential for causing liver failure.
It has never approved for use in the United States. However, in August , Prexige was withdrawn from the market in Australia following 8 serious liver adverse events, on September 27,, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a not approvable letter for lumiracoxib, requiring additional safety data.
Canada withdrew Prexige in October , several European Union countries followed suit in November The FDA rejected Prexige as a name for lumiracoxib in Prexede was suggested as an alternative, but the FDA Division of Medication Errors, on August 11,, Australias Therapeutic Goods Administration cancelled the registration of lumiracoxib in Australia due to concerns that it may cause liver failure.
ADRAC has today recommended the cancellation of the registration of Lumiracoxib due to the severity of the side effects associated with this drug. The TGA has taken this advice to cancel the registration of Lumiracoxib in order to prevent further cases of liver damage.
It seems that the people are on the medicine, the greater the chance of liver injury. The TGA is, therefore, advising people to stop taking the Lumiracoxib immediately and to discuss alternative treatments with their doctor, new Zealand has followed suit with Australia in recalling Prexige. On October 3,, Health Canada requested sales of Prexige to stop, Novartis has agreed to the request and has taken steps to do so. Valdecoxib — Valdecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms.
It is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, valdecoxib was manufactured and marketed under the brand name Bextra by G. Pharmacia and Upjohn, a Pfizer subsidiary, violated the United States Food, Drug, a water-soluble and injectable prodrug of valdecoxib, parecoxib is marketed in the European Union under the tradename Dynastat. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration approved valdecoxib for the treatment of osteoarthritis, adult rheumatoid arthritis, valdecoxib was also used off-label for controlling acute pain and various types of surgical pain.
A former Pfizer district sales manager was indicted and sentenced to confinement for destroying documents regarding the illegal promotion of Bextra. Valdecoxib has analytical methods for bioequivalence studies, metabolite determination, estimation of formulation, and an HPTLC method for simultaneous estimation in tablet dosage form. Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems, some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption, delayed wound healing, muscle weakness, and increased risk of infection 2.
It is an isomer of Suprofen 3. Generally, overdose in humans causes drowsiness, dizziness, severe headache, mental confusion, paresthesia, numbness of limbs, nausea, severe gastrointestinal bleeding is also possible 4. In contrast to most other NSAIDs, oxicams are not carboxylic acids and they are tautomeric and can exist as number of tautomers, here exemplified by piroxicam 5.
In , the sales level for Tilcotil was 70 million SEK 6. The effect of diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists can be reduced, as with piroxicam, cimetidine can increase plasma levels but is unlikely to cause relevant interactions 7.