Borax DecahydrateBorax Decahydrate broax the refined form of natural sodium borate. Composed of boric oxide B 2 O 3sodium oxide, and water, it is a mild, alkaline salt, decahydrate borax and crystalline, with excellent buffering and fluxing properties. Available dedahydrate powder or granular form, Borax Decahydrate is an important multifunctional source of B 2 O 3particularly for processes medi tech anavar review which the simultaneous presence of sodium is beneficial. Decahydrate borax and detergents Borax Decahydrate is incorporated in many cleaning products as a decxhydrate buffering agent, to aid in the emulsification of oils, and as a gentle abrasive. Borax Decahydrate is added to powdered hand soaps to remove medium to heavy soils encountered in industrial operations. It is gentle to decahydrate borax skin, yet highly effective in removing dirt.
Borax - Wikipedia
Borax , also known as sodium borate , sodium tetraborate , or disodium tetraborate , is an important boron compound , a mineral , and a salt of boric acid. Powdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve in water. A number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content are referred to as borax , but the word is usually used to refer to the decahydrate.
Commercially sold borax is partially dehydrated. Borax is a component of many detergents , cosmetics , and enamel glazes. It is used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry , as a fire retardant , as an anti-fungal compound, in the manufacture of fiberglass , as a flux in metallurgy , neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, as a precursor for other boron compounds, and along with its inverse, boric acid, is useful as an insecticide.
In artisanal gold mining , the borax method is sometimes used as a substitute for toxic mercury in the gold extraction process. Borax was reportedly used by gold miners in parts of the Philippines in the s.
The term borax is often used for a number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content:. In this structure, there are two four-coordinate boron atoms two BO 4 tetrahedra and two three-coordinate boron atoms two BO 3 triangles. Borax is also easily converted to boric acid and other borates , which have many applications. Its reaction with hydrochloric acid to form boric acid is:.
The "decahydrate" is sufficiently stable to find use as a primary standard for acid base titrimetry. When borax is added to a flame, it produces a yellow green color. Boric acid is used to color methanol flames a transparent green. The English word borax is Latinized: Another name for borax is tincal , from Sanskrit. Borax occurs naturally in evaporite deposits produced by the repeated evaporation of seasonal lakes.
Also, borax has been found at many other locations in the Southwestern United States , the Atacama desert in Chile , newly discovered deposits in Bolivia , and in Tibet and Romania. Borax can also be produced synthetically from other boron compounds. Naturally occurring borax known by the trade name Rasorite—46 in the United States and many other countries is refined by a process of recrystallization.
Borax is used in various household laundry and cleaning products,  including the " 20 Mule Team Borax " laundry booster, " Boraxo " powdered hand soap, and some tooth bleaching formulas. Borate ions commonly supplied as boric acid are used in biochemical and chemical laboratories to make buffers, e. Borate buffers usually at pH 8 are also used as preferential equilibration solution in dimethyl pimelimidate DMP based crosslinking reactions. Borax as a source of borate has been used to take advantage of the co-complexing ability of borate with other agents in water to form complex ions with various substances.
Borate and a suitable polymer bed are used to chromatograph non- glycosylated hemoglobin differentially from glycosylated hemoglobin chiefly HbA1c , which is an indicator of long term hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus.
Borax alone does not have a high affinity for the hardness cations , although it has been used for water-softening. Its chemical equation for water-softening is given below:. This method is suitable for removing both temporary and permanent types of hardness. A mixture of borax and ammonium chloride is used as a flux when welding iron and steel. It lowers the melting point of the unwanted iron oxide scale , allowing it to run off.
Borax is also used mixed with water as a flux when soldering jewelry metals such as gold or silver , where it allows the molten solder to wet the metal and flow evenly into the joint. Borax is also a good flux for "pre-tinning" tungsten with zinc — making the tungsten soft-solderable. Borax is replacing mercury as the preferred method for extracting gold in small-scale mining facilities.
The method is called the borax method and is used in the Philippines. A rubbery polymer sometimes called Slime , Flubber , 'gluep' or 'glurch' or erroneously called Silly Putty , which is based on silicone polymers , can be made by cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol with borax. Making flubber from polyvinyl acetate -based glues , such as Elmer's Glue , and borax is a common elementary-science demonstration.
Borax, given the E number E , is used as a food additive in some countries, but is banned in some countries, like the U. As a consequence, certain foods, such as caviar , produced for sale in the US contain higher levels of salt to assist preservation.
In oriental cooking it is mostly used for its texturing properties. In Asia , borax Chinese: The country's Directorate of Consumer Protection warns of the risk of liver cancer with high consumption over a period of 5—10 years.
Borax, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, according to one study, is not acutely toxic. The lethal dose is not necessarily the same for humans. On pesticide information websites it is listed as a non-lethal compound and of no hazardous concerns. Borax has been in use as an insecticide in the United States with various restrictions since All restrictions were removed in February due to the low toxicity of borax, as reported in two EPA documents relating to boric acid and borax. Although it cited inconclusive data, a re-evaluation in by the EPA still found that "There were no signs of toxicity observed during the study and no evidence of cytotoxicity to the target organ.
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate has no known hazard issues. Conditions defined as "over-exposure" to borax dust can cause respiratory irritation, while no skin irritation is known to exist due to borax. Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal distress including nausea , persistent vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
Effects on the vascular system and human brain include headaches and lethargy, but are less frequent. With severe poisoning, erythematous and exfoliative rash, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, and renal failure. A draft risk assessment released by Health Canada in July has found that overexposure to boric acid has the potential to cause developmental and reproductive health effects. Since people are already exposed to boric acid naturally through their diets and water, Health Canada advised that exposure from other sources should be reduced as much as possible, especially for children and pregnant women.
The concern is not with any one product, but rather multiple exposures from a variety of sources. With this in mind, the department also announced that registrations for certain pesticides that contain boric acid, which are commonly used in homes, will have their registrations cancelled and be phased out of the marketplace.
As well, new, more protective label directions are being introduced for other boric acid pesticides that continue to be registered in Canada for example, enclosed bait stations and spot treatments using gel formulations. The Indonesian Directorate of Consumer Protection warns of the risk of liver cancer with high consumption of borax over a period of 5—10 years. Substances and mixtures imported into the EU which contain borax are now required to be labelled with the warnings "May damage fertility" and "May damage the unborn child".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Borax disambiguation. For sodium perborate, see Sodium perborate. Chemistry portal Mining portal. Retrieved November 30, Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition.
Resolution of multiple ribonucleic acid species by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochemistry volume 6 6: Nucleic Acids Research Volume 9 Borax replacing mercury in small-scale mining. Archived from the original PDF on A Cookbook for Elementary Teachers. Hanson Ltd, Geneva, Switzerland. Archived from the original on Borax Powder, Mushroom Extract - Chowhound". Directorate of Consumer Protection, Jakarta, Indonesia. Archived from the original on December 28, Adopted on 9 June Reconciliation with Experimental Reproductive Toxicity Data".
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