Shared Flashcard SetCreate your own flash cards! Supporting users have an ad free experience! Flashcard Library Browse Search Browse. Term List the four major classes of macromolecules. Definition Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein and Nucleic acid. Term Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Definition Monomers are the building blockes of polymers.
Biology ch5 Flashcards | Easy Notecards
Create your own flash cards! Supporting users have an ad free experience! Flashcard Library Browse Search Browse. Term List the four major classes of macromolecules. Definition Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein and Nucleic acid. Term Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Definition Monomers are the building blockes of polymers. Polymers are long moleucles that consist of many similar or identical building blocks liked by covalent bonds.
An example of a polymer is a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein. Term Draw diagrams to illurstrate condensation and hydrolysis reactions. Term Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Definition Mono means single. Disaccharides are double sugars and consist of two monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides are macromolecules; polymers with many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Term Describe the formation of a glycosidic linkage. Definition A glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed betwen two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Term Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important. Definition The glycosidic linkages in starch and cellulous are different due to their slightly different ring structures for glucose. In starch, the glucose monomers are arranged in an alpha configuration. In cellulose, the monomers are in a beta configuration.
The structures are essentialy flip flopped from eathother. Term Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulous digestion. Definition Enzymes are unable to digest the beta form of cellulose. In humans, the cellulose in our food poasses through the digestive tract and is eliminated with the feces. Although humans cannot digest cellulose, it helps line the inside of the tract to help food move through smoothly.
Term Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids. Definition Fat or triacylglycerol: Structure is made through an ester linkage. The biological importance is that fat stores energy. Made of 2 fatty acids and glycerol. Their importance is that they are major cmponents of all cell membranes.
They are linked to a pohsphate group. Their structure is a carbon skeleton. The importance is the managing of hormones. Term Identify an ester linkage and describe how it is formed. Definition An ester linkage is a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group. Term Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats. Definition Saturated fats have zero double bonds between carbon atoms. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds. Unsaturated fats are easier for enzymes to break down than saturated fats are.
Term Name the principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals. Definition The principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals is fat.
Term Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide. Term Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids. Term List and describe the four m ajor components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group. Definition Amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom, and variable group represented with R. The r-group is a side chain and amino acids are grouped together by their side chains. The product of these groupings may be hydrophobic or hydrophilic.
Term Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important. Definition The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide determines the three-dimensional conformation or the protein.
The conformation of a protein is important because it determins how it works. Term Explain how the primary strcture of a protein is determined.
Definition The conformatino of a protein determines the structure of it. Term NAme two types of secondary protein sturcture. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure. The hydrogen bonds maintain this structure by repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone. Term Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure. Definition The weak interactions between the side chains contribute to tertiary protein structure.
The hydrophobid interaction also contributes to the tertiary structure. Term LIst four conditions under which proteins may be denatured. Definition pH, salt concentration, temperature, or alteration of other aspects of the environment. Term List the major components of a nucleotide and describe how these monomers are linked to forma nucleic acid. Definition a nitrogenous base, a pentose five-carbon sugar , and a phosphate group.
Term Briefly describe the three-dimentional structure of DNA. Definition DNA molecules have two polynucleotides that spiral around an imaginary axis. It forms a double helix.