Signs of Cancer in MenMale breast cancer facts. What is male breast cancer? Men possess a small amount of nonfunctioning breast tissue breast tissue that cannot produce milk that is concentrated in the area directly behind man breast cancer pictures nipple on the chest wall. Like breast cancer in women, cancer steroid pulse therapy wikipedia the male breast is the uncontrolled growth of some of the cells of this breast tissue that have the potential to spread elsewhere in the body. These cells become so abnormal in man breast cancer pictures and behavior that they are then called cancer cells. Breast tissue in healthy young boys and girls consists of tubular structures known as ducts.
How to Recognize Male Breast Cancer: 14 Steps (with Pictures)
Male breast cancer facts. What is male breast cancer? Men possess a small amount of nonfunctioning breast tissue breast tissue that cannot produce milk that is concentrated in the area directly behind the nipple on the chest wall. Like breast cancer in women, cancer of the male breast is the uncontrolled growth of some of the cells of this breast tissue that have the potential to spread elsewhere in the body. These cells become so abnormal in appearance and behavior that they are then called cancer cells.
Breast tissue in healthy young boys and girls consists of tubular structures known as ducts. At puberty , a girl's ovaries produce female hormones estrogen that cause the ducts to grow and milk glands lobules to develop at the ends of the ducts. The amount of fat and connective tissue in the breast also increases as girls go through puberty. On the other hand, male hormones such as testosterone secreted by the testes suppress the growth of breast tissue and the development of lobules.
The male breast, therefore, is made up of predominantly small, undeveloped ducts and a small amount of fat and connective tissue. How common is male breast cancer? Statistics from the American Cancer Society suggest that yearly, about 2, new cases of breast cancer in men are diagnosed and that breast cancer causes approximately deaths in men in comparison, almost 40, women die of breast cancer each year.
Breast cancer is times more common in women than in men. Most cases of male breast cancer are detected in men between the ages of 60 and 70, although the condition can develop in men of any age. Breast cancer incidence rates in men have remained fairly stable over the past 30 years.
Men are notorious for ignoring health problems. In some cases, if the underlying cause of a problem is cancer, ignoring symptoms could put men at risk. Some cancer symptoms in men are specific only to men such as a mass in the scrotum or testicle , and others symptoms such as pain or fatigue are general and could have many causes. Breast cancer in men is not common, but is it possible. Any mass in the breast area, or breast changes such as:. What are causes and risk factors of male breast cancer?
As with cancer of the female breast, the cause of cancer of the male breast has not been fully characterized, but both environmental influences and genetic inherited factors likely play a role in its development.
The following health risk factors for the development of male breast cancer have been identified. Exposure to ionizing radiation has been associated with an increased risk of developing male breast cancer. Men who have previously undergone radiation therapy to treat malignancies in the chest area for example, Hodgkin's lymphoma have an increased risk for the development of breast cancer.
Men normally produce small amounts of the female hormone estrogen, but certain conditions result in abnormally high levels of estrogen in men. The term gynecomastia means that the male breasts are abnormally enlarged in response to elevated levels of estrogen. High levels of estrogens also can increase the risk for development of male breast cancer. The majority of breast cancers in men are estrogen receptor-positive meaning that they have proteins on the surface of the cells that can receive and transport estrogen through the cell wall and into the interior of the cell.
Two medical conditions in which men have abnormally high levels of estrogen that are commonly associated with breast enlargement are Klinefelter's syndrome and cirrhosis of the liver. Obesity is also associated with elevated estrogen levels and breast enlargement in men. Certain medications can cause gynecomastia as a side effect when taken for long periods. These include several types of medicine used to treat high blood pressure , medicines to reduce stomach acid, valium , finasteride , medicines to treat prostate cancer , and others.
Check the side effects of the medicines you take if you think you may be developing male breast tissue enlargement gynecomastia. Klinefelter's syndrome is an inherited health condition affecting about one in 1, men. A normal man has two sex chromosomes X and Y. He inherited the female X chromosome from his mother and the male Y chromosome from his father.
Men with Klinefelter's syndrome have inherited an extra female X chromosome, resulting in an abnormal sex chromosome makeup of XXY rather than the normal male XY. Affected Klinefelter's patients produce high levels of estrogen and develop enlarged breasts, sparse facial and body hair, small testes, and the inability to produce sperm.
Some studies have shown an increase in the risk of developing breast cancer in men with this condition. Their risk for development of breast cancer is markedly increased, up to 50 times that of normal men.
Cirrhosis can result from chronic alcohol abuse , chronic viral hepatitis , or rare genetic conditions that result in accumulation of toxic substances within the liver. The liver produces important binding proteins that affect the transport and delivery of male and female hormones via the bloodstream. With cirrhosis, liver function is compromised, and the levels of free and protein-bound male and female hormones in the bloodstream are altered. Men with cirrhosis of the liver have higher blood levels of estrogen and have an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
Men who are heavy users of alcohol have an increased risk of breast cancer, possibly related to the effects of alcohol on the liver. Epidemiologic studies have shown that men who have several female relatives with breast cancer also have an increased risk for development of the disease. In particular, men who have inherited mutations in the breast cancer-associated BRCA2 gene have an increased risk for developing breast cancer, with a lifetime risk of about six in for development of breast cancer.
BRCA2 is a gene on chromosome 13 that normally functions in suppression of cell growth. Mutations in this gene lead to an increased risk for development of breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers.
A portion of breast cancers in men are thought to be attributable to BRCA2 mutation. Mutations in the BRCA1 gene, which has been associated with inherited breast cancers in women, increase the risk for male breast cancer to a lesser degree than mutations in BRCA2 lifetime risk of one in What are the different types of male breast cancer?
The most common type of male breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma , which is also a common type of breast cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to cancers with origins in the ducts tubular structures of the breast, and the term infiltrating means that the cancer cells have spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding tissue.
On the other hand, lobular cancers cancers of the milk glands , common in women, are extremely rare in men since male breast tissue does not normally contain lobules. Other less common types of cancers of the breast that have been reported in men include ductal carcinoma in situ cancerous changes in the ducts that have not spread beyond the ducts themselves , cystosarcoma phylloides a type of cancer of the connective tissue surrounding the ducts , and Paget's disease of the breast a cancer involving the skin of the nipple.
Some other types of breast cancer that occur in men are named for their growth patterns and microscopic appearance of the cancer cells, including papillary carcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer inflammatory carcinoma , and medullary carcinoma. Estrogen receptors on the cell membranes allow estrogen molecules to bind to the cancer cells.
Estrogen binding to the cancer cells can stimulate cell growth and multiplication. What are male breast cancer symptoms and signs? The most common clinical sign of breast cancer in men is a firm, usually painless mass located just under the nipple. There may not be other associated symptoms. The average size of breast cancer in men when first discovered is about 2. The cancer may cause skin changes in the area of the nipple. These changes can include.
Bloody or opaque discharge from the nipple may also occur. Breast cancer that has spread or metastasized metastatic breast cancer to other tissues can cause other symptoms depending upon the tissues or organs affected.
How do health care professionals diagnose male breast cancer? Diagnosis of breast cancer requires identifying cancer cells in tissue specimens obtained by taking a sample of the growth -- also called a "mass" or "tumor" -- by the technique of biopsy.
Since men have little breast tissue, cancers in male breasts are easily palpable located by feel and are often found on self-examination. Also, they are therefore easily accessible to biopsy.
Fine needle aspiration or needle biopsy of a suspicious mass can usually establish a diagnosis. A doctor inserts a needle into the mass to withdraw tissue from the suspicious area.
Microscopic examination of the tissue by a pathologist establishes the diagnosis. Other techniques that may be used to diagnose breast cancer in men include incisional removing a portion of the suspicious tissue or excisional removing the mass in its entirety biopsy of a breast mass.
If nipple discharge is present, microscopic examination of a smear of the discharge can sometimes establish the diagnosis. What is staging of male breast cancer? Doctors carry out staging to determine the extent to which a cancer has spread within the body. Staging of breast cancer in men is carried out identically to the staging of breast cancer in women. Imaging studies such as X-rays , CT scans , magnetic resonance imaging MRI , ultrasound , and bone scans may be performed to evaluate the presence and extent of metastatic disease once the initial diagnosis of breast cancer had been made.
For , a new edition of the AJCC staging system also takes into account biologic characteristics of the tumor including estrogen receptor ER and progesterone receptor PR status, tumor grade the appearance of the cells under a microscope and their similarity to normal cells , and the presence of the HER-2 protein on the cancer cells.
Stage 0 refers to intraductal carcinoma or ductal cancer in situ, in which the cancer cells have not spread beyond the boundaries of the ducts themselves. In Stage I breast cancer, the tumor is 2 cm or less in greatest diameter and has not spread to the lymph nodes or to other sites in the body. Stage II cancers are divided into two groups. Stage IIA cancer is either less than 2 cm in diameter with spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or the tumor is between 2 cm-5 cm but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
Stage IIB tumors are either larger than 5 cm without spread to the lymph nodes or are between 2 cm-5 cm in size and have spread to the axillary lymph nodes. Stage III is considered to be locally advanced cancer. Stage IIIA means the tumor is smaller than 5 cm but has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, and the axillary lymph nodes are attached to each other or to other structures; or the tumor is greater than 5 cm in diameter with spread to the axillary lymph nodes, which may be attached to each other or to other structures.
Stage IIIB tumors have spread to surrounding tissues such as skin, chest wall, or to the lymph nodes inside the chest wall. Stage IV cancer refers to metastatic cancer, meaning it has spread to other parts of the body. With breast cancer, metastases sites of tumor elsewhere in the body are most often found in the bones, lungs , liver, or brain. It may also reoccur in and spread to involve areas of the chest wall, skin, and muscles, as well as more distant lymph nodes.
What is the medical treatment options for male breast cancer? Like breast cancer in women, medical treatment depends upon the stage of the cancer and the overall physical condition of the patient.
Treatments are the same as for breast cancer in women. Most men diagnosed with breast cancer are initially treated by surgery. A modified radical mastectomy removal of the breast, lining over the chest muscles, and portions of the underarm or axillary lymph nodes is the most common surgical treatment of male breast cancer.
Sometimes doctors also remove portions of the muscles of the chest wall.