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Research data indicates that steroids affect the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems of the brain. Moreover, testosterone appears to act through the mesolimbic dopamine system, a common substrate for drugs of abuse. Nonetheless, androgen reinforcement is not comparable to that of cocaine, nicotine, or heroin. Instead, testosterone resembles other mild reinforcers, such as caffeine, or benzodiazepines.
The potential for androgen addiction remains to be determined. Anabolic steroids are not psychoactive and cannot be detected by stimuli devices like a pupilometer which makes them hard to spot as a source of neuropsychological imbalaces in some AAS users.
ICD 10 however regards them as non-dependence producing. ICD—10 criteria for dependence include experience of at least three of the following during the past year: The National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA says that "even though anabolic steroids do not cause the same high as other drugs, steroids are reinforcing and can lead to addiction. Studies have shown that animals will self-administer steroids when given the opportunity, just as they do with other addictive drugs.
Also, steroid abusers typically spend large amounts of time and money obtaining the drug; another indication of addiction. Individuals who abuse steroids can experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking them, including mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, and steroid cravings, all of which may contribute to continued abuse.
One of the most dangerous withdrawal symptoms is depression. When depression is persistent, it can sometimes lead to suicidal thoughts. Research has found that some steroid abusers turn to other drugs such as opioids to counteract the negative effects of steroids. Male anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers often have a troubled social background. Anabolic steroids are sometimes used by people with muscle dysmorphia a very specific type of body dysmorphic disorder BDD as a defense mechanism.
Anabolic steroid use has been associated with an antisocial lifestyle involving various types of criminality. Steroid abuse among law enforcement is considered a problem by some. It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.
Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. According to a study, 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. What the psychiatrist needs to know". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Abuse of steroids or hormones". Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. National Institute on Drug Abuse".
In Hobfoll, Stevan E. Extreme stress and communities: The Ann Arbor News. Retrieved 1 December A controversy McMahon 'doesn't need ' ". Androstanolone stanolone, dihydrotestosterone, DHT Androstanolone esters Bolazine capronate Drostanolone propionate dromostanolone propionate Epitiostanol Mepitiostane Mesterolone Metenolone acetate methenolone acetate Metenolone enanthate methenolone enanthate Stenbolone acetate Nortestosterone derivatives: Bolandiol dipropionate Nandrolone esters e.
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