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Steroids are found in various types of medications such as bronchial inhalers, eye drops and more. When most of us think of steroids, those are not what come to mind. What usually comes to mind are the steroids that athletes use to get stronger and better at what they do. These types of steroids are called Anabolic steroids and have some very dangerous and sometimes life threatening side effects.
Acne is among the non serious side effects caused by steroids. Rosccea, the skin disorder has also been reported as a side effect of steroids. Increased fat excretion and hair loss are also known to be side effects. There is some evidence that anabolic steroid abuse may affect the immune system, leading to a decreased effectiveness of the defense system.
Glucose tolerance has also been known to be decreased with steroid use while insulin use seems to be increased which mimic the type 2 diabetes. It has also been known to cause aggressive behavior because of the increase of testosterone level being increased by the steroid. Mainly with orally administered steroids there seem to be the possibility of causing problems for the Liver.
There are strong indications that steroids containing a alpha-alkyl group can cause tumors of the liver. The tumors are usually benign and reverse after stopping with steroid administration. Use of steroids has been known to cause an increase in liver enzymes which can cause serious liver diseases. Many men who have taken steroids have been known to have reproductive problems.
That is one of those things that most people have heard of. The steroids can cause hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism which is absent or decreased function of the gonads. This can occur in men and woman as well.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids AAS are manufactured substances related to male sex hormones e. These drugs can be legally prescribed to treat conditions resulting from steroid hormone deficiency, such as delayed puberty, but also body wasting in patients with AIDS and other diseases that result in loss of lean muscle mass.
How are AAS Abused? The immediate effects of AAS in the brain are mediated by their binding to androgen and estrogen receptors, which can then shuttle into the cell nucleus to influence patterns of gene expression. Because of this, the acute effects of AAS in the brain are substantially different from those of other drugs of abuse. However, long-term use of AAS can eventually have an impact on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals—such as dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems—that are affected by drugs of abuse.
Considering the combined effect of their complex direct and indirect actions, it is not surprising that AAS can affect mood and behavior in significant ways. AAS and mental health Taken together, the preclinical, clinical, and anecdotal reports suggest that steroids may contribute to psychiatric dysfunction. Research shows that abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to aggression and other adverse effects. Addictive potential Animal studies have shown that AAS are reinforcing; that is, animals will self-administer AAS when given the opportunity, just as they do with other addictive drugs.
Individuals who abuse steroids can experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking AAS, such as mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, and steroid cravings, all of which may contribute to the need for continued abuse. One of the most dangerous withdrawal symptoms is depression, because, when persistent, it can sometimes lead to suicide attempts.
Research also indicates that some users might turn to other drugs to alleviate some of the negative effects of AAS. For example, a study of men admitted in to a private treatment center for dependence on heroin or other opioids found that 9. Of these, 86 percent first used opioids to counteract insomnia and irritability resulting from the steroids.
Steroid abuse can lead to serious, even irreversible health problems. Some of the most dangerous among them include liver damage, jaundice yellowish pigmentation of skin, tissues, and body fluids , fluid retention, high blood pressure, increases in LDL bad cholesterol , and decreases in HDL good cholesterol.
Other reported effects include renal failure, severe acne, and trembling. In addition, there are some gender- and age-specific adverse effects: What Treatment Options Exist? There has been very little research on treatment for AAS abuse.
Current knowledge derives largely from the experiences of a small number of physicians who have worked with patients undergoing steroid withdrawal. They have learned that, in general, supportive therapy combined with education about possible withdrawal symptoms is sufficient in some cases. Sometimes, medications can be used to restore the balance of the hormonal system after its disruption by steroid abuse.
If symptoms are severe or prolonged, symptomatic medications or hospitalization may be needed. Steroid use among all three grades remained unchanged from to , for both boys and girls, although significant reductions were noted since for lifetime and past-year use among all grades, and for past-month use among 8th and 10th graders. Among seniors in , past-year steroid use was reported by 2.
While the steroid crisis in professional sports blares from the media, the impact of these doping role models is hitting close to home. There is evidence that kids are using these chemical substances to get a performance edge—even for Little League —and that adults are using them just to shave some seconds off their treadmill time. What do you need to know? Mechanick , associate clinical professor at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York City , outlines the different types of performance-enhancing drugs that exist today and the impact of these drugs on the body.
What are performance-enhancing drugs? Performance-enhancing drugs are substances that are used to increase certain physiologic functions. They affect things like muscle strength, endurance, the ability to pump blood, the ability to breathe, liver function and kidney function.
These substances have an impact on athletic performance and physical performance as they may help somebody do better in competition. What types of performance-enhancing drugs are there? There are no true conventional categories of performance-enhancing drugs, but if you had to think about what they are, there would be dietary supplements and drugs that require a prescription, which include steroids. Then there would be peptides, or protein-like chemicals, like growth hormone.
There are other substances that don't really fit into a category that may or may not require a prescription. They are designer compounds because they have been manipulated so that they're not easily detected.
Who uses performance-enhancing drugs? Performance-enhancing drugs are used by athletes: There are also those who want to lose weight or burn off fat and increase their muscle mass for cosmetic reasons. They might be children, teenagers or young adults. It could also be the elderly.
How many people use these drugs? The statistics for usage are derived from surveys, casual questionnaires and retrospective studies of data. There hasn't been a properly designed scientific study yet, so the answer is that experts have no idea what the magnitude of this problem is.
What are anabolic steroids and how do they work? Steroids are a class of compounds made by the adrenal gland, as well as reproductive organs in the body. Examples of steroids include testosterone, a male hormone, and estrogen, a female hormone. Anabolic means building up tissue. But to add anabolic steroids to that recipe, so the muscles get even bigger or stronger, is unnatural and there can be hazards from doing that. What types of anabolic steroids are there?
The anabolic steroids include testosterone and its precursors: These are all produced naturally in the body. What are the approved uses for anabolic steroids? The approved uses for testosterone right now are in men who have low testosterone levels to replace what they ordinarily would naturally have.
For women in early menopause who have a decreased sex drive, doctors will sometimes prescribe a little bit of male hormone to augment the libido. What are designer performance-enhancing drugs?
An example of a designer performance-enhancing agent might be a chemical that looks like testosterone, but when an athlete gets screened for testosterone, it would come up negative. These drugs may also have a longer half-life, meaning they stay in the body for a longer period of time, causing a more profound effect in growing muscle tissue.
What are the side effects of steroids? One adverse effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids, such as testosterone, is decreased sperm count in men. If men have a lot of testosterone, the pituitary gland won't be screaming so loud, so it gets turned off.
As a result, sperm production gets turned off. However, many of the users and abusers of anabolic steroids have found ways to circumvent this. In fact, there are other medicines that can keep the sperm count up, even when you're using or abusing testosterone.
Testosterone has adverse effects on your lipid profile. Your lipid profile is cholesterol, triglycerides, "good" high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and "bad" low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol. Excess levels of bad cholesterol can predispose you to heart disease.
Testosterone also causes increased breast tissue. Testosterone is converted into estrogen through a process called aromatization and the estrogen increases the breast tissue formation. Bodybuilders and weightlifters who use testosterone have learned to get around that by taking yet another drug called an aromatase inhibitor, which blocks the conversion. Testosterone can cause growth of the prostate gland; if you already have a large prostate gland, you can have real problems.
Testosterone can also cause acne and hair loss. You can have joint, bone and muscle pains if you take a lot of testosterone. Testosterone can also cause fluid retention, so people may have to counter that by taking diuretics. Steroids can affect the liver, particularly if you take the testosterone by mouth. It really is a hazardous compound to be administering to yourself when you don't really need it.