BodybuildingAnabolic steroid - definition of anabolic steroid by The Free Dictionary https: Any of a group of synthetic steroid hormones that promote the storage of protein and the growth of tissue, sometimes used by athletes to increase anabolic steroids wikipedia deutsch size and strength. Nonprescription sale of anabolic steroids was declared illegal in the Wikipedla States in Switch to new thesaurus. References in periodicals archive?
Anabolic steroid - definition of anabolic steroid by The Free Dictionary
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature. In professional bodybuilding , bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses and later individual posing routines for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry, muscularity, and conditioning. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through a combination of intentional dehydration , elimination of nonessential body fat , and carbohydrate loading to achieve maximum vascularity , as well as tanning to accentuate muscular definition.
Bodybuilders may use anabolic steroids to build muscles. Olympia contest is generally recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder. The title is currently held by Phil Heath , who has won every year from to The winner of the Women's Physique portion of the competition is widely regarded as the world's top female professional bodybuilder.
The title is currently held by Juliana Malacarne , who has won every year since Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt , Greece and Tamilakam. The focus was not on their physique, and they often had large bellies and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow , now called the "Father of Bodybuilding".
He allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches.
Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through his manager, Florenz Ziegfeld. The Oscar -winning musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts this beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he later created several businesses around his fame, and was among the first to market products branded with his name. He was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: Even his image was sold by the thousands in " cabinet cards " and other prints.
Sandow was a perfect "gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues. Men were judged by how closely they matched these proportions. Sandow organised the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, , called the "Great Competition". It was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London.
Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle , the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members. The winner was William L. The silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. The bronze Sandow trophy, now the most famous of all, was presented to third-place winner A.
Olympia contest, Frank Zane , was presented with the bronze trophy, or at least a replica of it. Olympia winners have been awarded a replica of the bronze trophy. Two weeks later, Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine. Edison had also made two films of Sandow a few years before. Those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century, Macfadden and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world.
Swoboda was an early pioneer in America. Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to include Earle Liederman writer of some of bodybuilding's earliest books , Zishe Breitbart , Georg Hackenschmidt , Emy Nkemena, George F. Mead who became an impressive muscle champion despite the fact that he lost a leg in World War I. Bushman , who was a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career.
Bodybuilding became more popular in the s and s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, and the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down, the use of protein and other food supplements, and the opportunity to enter physique contests. Consequently, the male-dominated contests grew both in number and in size. Besides the many "Mr. Galaxy, and ultimately Mr.
Olympia which was started in by the IFBB and is now considered the most important bodybuilding competition in the world. During the s, the most famous competing bodybuilders [ according to whom? Certain bodybuilders rose to fame thanks to the relatively new medium of television, as well as movies.
The most notable [ according to whom? While there were well-known gyms throughout the country during the s such as Vince's Gym in North Hollywood, California and Vic Tanny 's chain gyms , there were still segments of the United States that had no "hardcore" bodybuilding gyms until the advent of Gold's Gym in the mids. Finally, the famed Muscle Beach in Santa Monica, California continued its popularity as the place to be for witnessing acrobatic acts, feats of strength, and the like.
The s grew more in TV and movie exposure, as bodybuilders were typecast in popular shows and movies. In the s, bodybuilding had major publicity thanks to the appearance of Arnold Schwarzenegger , Franco Columbu , Lou Ferrigno , and others in the docudrama Pumping Iron.
The late s and early s saw the decline of AAU-sponsored bodybuilding contests. In , the AAU voted to discontinue its bodybuilding events. This period also saw the rise of anabolic steroids in bodybuilding and many other sports. Bodybuilders such as Greg Kovacs and Paul Demayo attained mass and size that were not seen previously, but were not particularly successful at the pro level. At the time of shooting Pumping Iron , Schwarzenegger while never admitting to steroid use until long after his retirement said that "you have to do anything you can to get the advantage in competition".
To combat steroid use and in the hopes of becoming a member of the IOC , the IFBB introduced doping tests for both steroids and other banned substances. Although doping tests occurred, the majority of professional bodybuilders still used anabolic steroids for competition. During the s, the use of anabolic steroids was openly discussed, partly due to the fact they were legal.
In Canada , steroids were added to the Canadian Criminal Code as a Class IV controlled substance a class created expressly for steroids. McMahon wanted to bring WWF -style showmanship and bigger prize money to the sport of bodybuilding. A number of IFBB stars were recruited but the roster was never very large, and featured the same athletes competing; the most notable winner and first WBF champion was Gary Strydom. Reasons for this reportedly included lack of income from the pay-per-view broadcasts of the contests, slow sales of the WBF's magazine Bodybuilding Lifestyles later WBF Magazine , and the expense of paying multiple six-figure contracts while producing two TV shows and a monthly magazine.
In the early 21st century, patterns of consumption and recreation similar to those of the United States became more widespread in Europe and especially in Eastern Europe following the collapse of the Soviet Union. This resulted in the emergence of whole new populations of bodybuilders emerged from former Eastern Bloc states.
It obtained full IOC membership in and was attempting to get approved as a demonstration event at the Olympics, which would hopefully lead to it being added as a full contest. This did not happen and Olympic recognition for bodybuilding remains controversial, since many argue that bodybuilding is not a sport. In the modern bodybuilding industry, the term " professional " generally means a bodybuilder who has won qualifying competitions as an amateur and has earned a "pro card" from their respective organization.
Professionals earn the right to compete in competitions that include monetary prizes. A pro card also prohibits the athlete from competing in federations other than the one from which they have received the pro card. Due to the growing concerns of the high cost, health consequences, and illegal nature of some steroids, many organizations have formed in response and have deemed themselves "natural" bodybuilding competitions.
In addition to the concerns noted, many promoters of bodybuilding have sought to shed the "freakish" perception that the general public has of bodybuilding and have successfully introduced a more mainstream audience to the sport of bodybuilding by including competitors whose physiques appear much more attainable and realistic.
In natural contests, the testing protocol ranges among organizations from lie detectors to urinalysis. Penalties also range from organization to organization from suspensions to strict bans from competition.
It is also important to note that natural organizations also have their own list of banned substances and it is important to refer to each organization's website for more information about which substances are banned from competition. There are many natural bodybuilding organizations. These organizations either have American or worldwide presence and are not limited to the country in which they are headquartered.
NPC competitions screen competitors using ineffective lie detector tests to ensure fair practices. Such tests are very error prone, and some competitors are not even tested. The NANBF takes a more direct approach by taking urine samples from all competitors that are tested for steroids and any other substances on the banned list. The criteria of certain poses differs from organization to organization.
Women's National Physique Championship, promoted by Henry McGhee and held in Canton, Ohio in , is generally regarded as the first true female bodybuilding contest—that is, the first contest where the entrants were judged solely on muscularity. Olympia initially known as the "Miss" Olympia , the most prestigious contest for professionals, was held. The contest was a major turning point for female bodybuilding. McLish inspired many future competitors to start training and competing. In , a movie called Pumping Iron II: The Women was released.
At the time, Francis was actually a powerlifter , though she soon made a successful transition to bodybuilding, becoming one of the leading competitors of the late s and early s. In recent years, the related areas of fitness and figure competition have increased in popularity, surpassing that of female bodybuilding, and have provided an alternative for women who choose not to develop the level of muscularity necessary for bodybuilding.
McLish would closely resemble what is thought of today as a fitness and figure competitor, instead of what is now considered a female bodybuilder.
Fitness competitions also have a gymnastic element to them. A study by the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine found that female bodybuilders who are taking anabolic steroids are more likely to have qualified for substance dependence disorder and have been diagnosed with a psychiatric illness and have a history of sexual abuse. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders aspire to develop and maintain an aesthetically pleasing body and balanced physique.
Each competitor also performs a routine to display their physique. A posedown is usually held at the end of a posing round, while judges are finishing their scoring. Bodybuilders spend a lot of time practising their posing in mirrors. In contrast to strongman or powerlifting competitions, where physical strength is important, or to Olympic weightlifting , where the main point is equally split between strength and technique, bodybuilding competitions typically emphasize condition, size, and symmetry.
Different organizations emphasize particular aspects of competition, and sometimes have different categories in which to compete. The general strategy adopted by most present-day competitive bodybuilders is to make muscle gains for most of the year known as the "off-season" and, approximately 12—14 weeks from competition, attempt to lose body fat referred to as "cutting". The bulking phase entails remaining in a net positive energy balance calorie surplus. The amount of a surplus in which a person remains is based on the person's goals, as a bigger surplus and longer bulking phase will create more fat tissue.
The surplus of calories relative to one's energy balance will ensure that muscles remain in a state of growth.